Farm animals have had a crucial role in human development and have been of high importance until now in many diverse farming systems. For the future, animal production poses substantial opportunities as well as risks, regarding both food security of the growing human population, as well as climate effects, depending largely on the farming system. Human–animal interactions inevitably occur throughout the lives of farm animals. However, the frequency and types of interactions are extremely variable, both between and within husbandry systems. This chapter reviews the variation in interactions and relationships, the causes for these differences and the implications for animal and human welfare. It shows evidence not only for the direct effects of the stockpersons’ relationship towards the animals in interactions and thus animal welfare, but also for the indirect effects via decision making. Lastly, societal implications and future research areas are discussed.
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