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Modern Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists$
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Dennis Sherwood and Paul Dalby

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780198782957

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198782957.001.0001

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Reactions in solution

Reactions in solution

(p.502) 16 Reactions in solution
Modern Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists

Dennis Sherwood

Paul Dalby

Oxford University Press

Another key chapter, examining reactions in solution. Starting with the definition of an ideal solution, and then introducing Raoult’s law and Henry’s law, this chapter then draws on the results of Chapter 14 (gas phase equilibria) to derive the corresponding results for equilibria in an ideal solution. A unique feature of this chapter is the analysis of coupled reactions, once again using first principles to show how the coupling of an endergonic reaction to a suitable exergonic reaction results in an equilibrium mixture in which the products of the endergonic reaction are present in much higher quantity. This demonstrates how coupled reactions can cause entropy-reducing events to take place without breaking the Second Law, so setting the scene for the future chapters on applications of thermodynamics to the life sciences, especially chapter 24 on bioenergetics.

Keywords:   ideal solution, solvent, solute, mole fraction, molality, molar concentration, Raoult’s law, Henry’s law, Gibbs free energy of ideal solution, extent-of-reaction, chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, mass action ratio, coupled reactions

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