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Modern Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists$
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Dennis Sherwood and Paul Dalby

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780198782957

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198782957.001.0001

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Temperature and heat

Temperature and heat

(p.43) 3 Temperature and heat
Modern Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists

Dennis Sherwood

Paul Dalby

Oxford University Press

Concepts of temperature, temperature scales and temperature measurement. The ideal gas law, Dalton’s law of partial pressure. Assumptions underlying the ideal gas, and distinction between ideal and real gases. Introduction to equations-of-state such as the van der Waals, Dieterici, Berthelot and virial equations, which describe real gases. Concept of heat, and distinction between heat and temperature. Experiments of Rumford and Joule, and the principle of the conservation of energy. Units of measurement for heat. Heat as a path function. Flow of heat down a temperature gradient as an irreversible and unidirectional process. ‘Zeroth’ Law of Thermodynamics. Definitions of isolated, closed and open systems, and of isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric and isothermal changes in state. Connection between work and heat, as illustrated by the steam engine. The molecular interpretation of heat, energy and temperature. The Boltzmann distribution. Meaning of negative temperatures.

Keywords:   temperature, temperature scale, Dalton’s law of partial pressures, equation-of-state, heat, conservation of energy, zeroth law of thermodynamics, isolated system, closed system, open system, isothermal, adiabatic, Boltzmann distribution

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