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Evolutionary Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae$
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Tyler Carrier, Adam Reitzel, and Andreas Heyland

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780198786962

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198786962.001.0001

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Origin and Diversity of Marine Larvae

Origin and Diversity of Marine Larvae

Chapter:
(p.3) Chapter 1 Origin and Diversity of Marine Larvae
Source:
Evolutionary Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae
Author(s):
Claus Nielsen
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198786962.003.0001

The origin of larvae has been much discussed, but the most plausible theory is the “terminal addition theory,” which proposes that the larvae originated when a benthic stage was added to the ancestral holoplanktonic life cycle, with the planktonic stage retained as the larva. Marine larvae show an astonishing morphological and ecological variation. Planktotrophic larvae are found in many smaller or larger lineages, and characteristic types—such as the trochophore of many annelids and molluscs, the cyphonautes of some bryozoans, the actinotrocha of most phoronids, the pluteus larvae of most echinoderms, and the tornaria of some enteropneusts—are familiar members of the plankton. These larvae show different types of ciliary filter feeding: trochophores have downstream-collecting, cyphonautes and actinotrocha have ciliary-sieving, and pluteus and actiunotrocha have upstream-collecting feeding. Crustacean larvae show a variety of feeding mechanisms. Lecithotrophic larvae are found in all phyla. A panorama of marine larvae is presented.

Keywords:   larva, planktotrophy, lecithotrophy, holoplanktonic, ciliary filter feeding

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