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Evolutionary Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae$
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Tyler Carrier, Adam Reitzel, and Andreas Heyland

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780198786962

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198786962.001.0001

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Asexual Reproduction of Marine Invertebrate Embryos and Larvae

Asexual Reproduction of Marine Invertebrate Embryos and Larvae

(p.67) Chapter 5 Asexual Reproduction of Marine Invertebrate Embryos and Larvae
Evolutionary Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae
Jonathan D. Allen, Adam M. Reitzel, William Jaeckle
Oxford University Press

Developmental plasticity during the early life histories of marine invertebrates is a fascinating opportunity to study the interplay between ecology and evolution. In particular, some embryos and larvae initiate asexual reproduction while completing their development. This chapter examines the mode, frequency, and taxonomic diversity of asexual reproduction that occurs between the zygotic and the juvenile stages. Special attention is given to the phylum Echinodermata, where asexual reproduction during embryonic and larval development has been best studied. An emphasis is also placed on the factors that have been identified as likely inducers of asexual reproduction and an assessment of the likelihood that asexual reproduction is an adaptive response to these factors. Lastly, several key open questions are identified as potential avenues for future research about the causes and consequences of asexual reproduction by the developmental stages of marine invertebrates.

Keywords:   cloning, plasticity, polyembryony, asexual reproduction, life history

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