Chapter 15 takes up some difficulties that arise in connection with nation states. The first is whether the account can accommodate ordinary talk about nation states. The chapter argues that many difficulties arise from ambiguities in how names for nation states are used. The second is the question whether all citizens are agents of what the nation state does when citizenship is typically conferred by a birthright. The chapter argues that only self-conscious citizens are properly thought of as contributing to what the state does. The fourth is whether non-representative governments can be accommodated in the picture. The chapter argues that they can if the citizens accept the form of government. The fifth is whether oppressive governments, which may even have a representative form, are counterexamples. The chapter argues that these are like a Potemkin village, and its citizens akin to POWs.
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