With the expansion of cyberspace, European armed forces are confronted by new challenges. Cyber threats keep growing more sophisticated, targeted, and powerful. Not only states, but also individuals, political groups, and criminal and terrorist organizations use these rather affordable and widely accessible technologies remotely to conduct operations such as espionage, sabotage, information warfare, or influence. Russian nationalist propaganda has made a powerful comeback on social networks, along with ISIS propaganda. Cyber attacks for neutralization or strategic espionage have increased in worrying proportions. The specificities inherent to cyberspace and the unusual intertwining of political, economic, and military issues represent a real challenge for the elaboration and the implementation of a strategic or tactical response. They also represent a challenge for international cooperation in crisis resolutions and the conduct of military operations.
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