This chapter considers national-level responses to the security challenges set out in Part III with regard to intelligence, with a particular focus on the transformative impact of transnational terrorism on national intelligence missions and structures. It goes on to discuss intelligence cooperation between European states and the implications of developments here for national oversight and accountability arrangements. The question of US–European tensions over post-9/11 intelligence-gathering, some a consequence of the information leaked by former US National Security Agency employee Edward Snowden, is assessed. Finally, the chapter considers the question of the extent to which the European Union has become an intelligence actor in its own right and the possible obstacles to it further developing such a role.
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