This chapter investigates the development of industrial and technological capabilities for cyber defence in Europe up to 2016. It assesses (a) the relevant policies, as well as (b) the institutional and (c) the industrial and technologies resources of Western Europe’s major powers (France, Germany, and the United Kingdom), and then of a selection of representative examples of medium and lesser powers (Italy, Spain, and Sweden).’ It establishes that since the mid-2000s developing cyber-security and cyber-defence capabilities emerged as a top priority for all the European powers examined. The most important efforts were from Europe’s largest military powers, France and the UK, which both showcase a firm intention to belong to the circle of leading powers in cyberspace. The efficacy of these efforts is hard to judge, given the absence of greater transparency and the nature of the cyber risks and threats.
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