This chapter assesses the current state of European military space capabilities as of 2017. Cooperative programmes have become more prominent, but national concerns are still predominant. While European institutions have acquired some military space interests, intergovernmental policymaking is still critical. Europe has a wide range of technological capabilities, but there are gaps in some security critical areas. The European space industrial base is partially integrated but with some tensions stemming from residual national industrial interests. The chapter examines the leading European national military space capabilities as well as a representative sample of other medium and lesser European powers. Europe is compared with other mid-range space powers such as India and Japan, as well as benchmarking against the United States, Russia, and China. While European military space has made significant progress, it is still impeded by political divisions that reflect wider weaknesses in European security policy.
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