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ReasoningNew Essays on Theoretical and Practical Thinking$
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Magdalena Balcerak Jackson and Brendan Balcerak Jackson

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198791478

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: July 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198791478.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 02 December 2021

Attitudes in Active Reasoning

Attitudes in Active Reasoning

(p.44) 4 Attitudes in Active Reasoning

Julia Staffel

Oxford University Press

Active reasoning is the kind of reasoning that we do deliberately and consciously. In characterizing the nature of active reasoning and the norms it should obey, the question arises which attitudes we can reason with. Many authors take outright beliefs to be the attitudes we reason with. Others assume that we can reason with both outright beliefs and degrees of belief. Some think that we reason only with degrees of belief. This chapter approaches the question of what kinds of beliefs can participate in reasoning by using the following method: it takes the default position to be maximally permissive—that both graded and outright beliefs can participate in reasoning. It then identifies some features of active reasoning that appear at first glance to favor a more restrictive position about which types of belief we can reason with. It argues that the arguments based on these features ultimately fail.

Keywords:   reasoning, System 2, belief, credence, degree of belief, inference, propositional attitude, dual process, dual system

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