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Genes, brain, and emotionsInterdisciplinary and Translational Perspectives$
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Andrei C. Miu, Judith R. Homberg, and Klaus-Peter Lesch

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198793014

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198793014.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 27 July 2021

Animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder

Animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder

Towards understanding of individual differences

(p.324) Chapter 22 Animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder
Genes, brain, and emotions

Lisa Heltzel

Judith R Homberg

Oxford University Press

Fear learning and memory allows organisms to respond adaptively to cues and contexts that are associated with danger upon a future encounter. Sometimes fear responses go awry, leading to an intrusive fear memory failing to extinguish, eliciting an intense, distressing, and persisting response. These are core symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There are substantial individual differences in fear learning and memory, such that some are resilient and other are vulnerable to PTSD. In this chapter we set-out the methods to measure fear learning and memory in rodents, discuss their translational value, and present currently available behavioural methods to measure resilience versus vulnerability. Regarding vulnerability factors we focus on biological factors (e.g. altered function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis), genotype (e.g. serotonin transporter, BDNF), age (pre-adolescence, adolescence, adulthood), and gender. This chapter provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of animal and behavioural models to investigate individual differences in vulnerability to PTSD.

Keywords:   post-traumatic stress disorder, Pavlovian fear, rodent models, individual differences, age, genotype, gender

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