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Genes, brain, and emotionsInterdisciplinary and Translational Perspectives$
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Andrei C. Miu, Judith R. Homberg, and Klaus-Peter Lesch

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198793014

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198793014.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 27 July 2021

Gene–environment interactions in humans across multiple units of analyses

Gene–environment interactions in humans across multiple units of analyses

A focus on psychopathology and imaging

(p.18) Chapter 3 Gene–environment interactions in humans across multiple units of analyses
Genes, brain, and emotions

Suzanne Vrshek-Schallhorn

Bradley M Avery

Vaibhav Sapuram

Oxford University Press

Gene–environment interaction (G×E) research in humans seeks to answer how specific genetic variation contributes to marked individual differences in responding to life experiences, primarily in regard to psychological functioning. In this chapter, we highlight theoretical models underlying G×E research, aspects of its history and controversies, the current state of G×E knowledge, and emerging and future directions for G×E research. Throughout this discussion, we show how this work has emerged across multiple units or levels of analyses, ranging from those closer to the biological functioning of the genes involved, such as neural activity in functional imaging, to more distal outcomes such as diagnoses of psychopathology. Important future directions for G×E research are transitioning from single variant to multiple variant approaches, and more carefully conceptualizing and measuring risk environments while also boosting sample sizes. Ultimately, by attending to these issues, G×E research can not only contribute to early detection of individuals with risky genetic and environmental profiles, but can also aid in revealing etiological pathways, thereby elucidating novel treatment approaches to mental illnesses.

Keywords:   gene–environment interaction, imaging, psychopathology, intermediate phenotype, life stress

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