Beyond the HDI
Human development is often identified with the Human Development Index (HDI), and this is how the empirical work in previous chapters has proceeded. But this is a very reductionist approach to human development. This chapter identifies eleven dimensions that form part of human development, beyond the three incorporated in the HDI, by drawing on the work of philosophers and others. It then explores empirically how far the HDI represents these other dimensions in cross-country comparisons, selecting several indicators for each dimension. It shows that the HDI is not a good measure of a broader concept of human development. Using the indicators adopted and excluding those with strong correlations with each other, or with the HDI, left an additional thirty-one indicators to get a comprehensive measure of human development. To get a comprehensive measure of human development requires many indicators besides the HDI.
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