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The EU Treaties and the Charter of Fundamental RightsA Commentary$
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Manuel Kellerbauer, Marcus Klamert, and Jonathan Tomkin

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198794561

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2021

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198794561.001.0001

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Title IV Provisions on Enhanced Cooperation

Title IV Provisions on Enhanced Cooperation

(p.189) Title IV Provisions on Enhanced Cooperation
The EU Treaties and the Charter of Fundamental Rights

Marcus Klamert

Manuel Kellerbauer

Jonathan Tomkin

Oxford University Press

Differences between MS’ willingness or capability to proceed on the common path to an ‘ever closer Union’ have existed since the creation of the EEC. First reflections on how to avoid that this heterogeneity slows down the integration process date back to the 1970s. The then divergence of MS’ economic and financial situations prompted suggestions that MS that are able to progress towards an economic and monetary union should have a duty to forge ahead, whilst those left behind should receive assistance to catch up. In the ensuing decades, it was first and foremost the different political visions for the future of the Union that fuelled discussions about types of differentiated integration for which terms such as ‘multi-speed Europe’, ‘Europe à la carte’, or ‘closer cooperation’ were coined.

Keywords:   EEC, economic and financial situations, ensuing decades

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