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The EU Treaties and the Charter of Fundamental RightsA Commentary$
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Manuel Kellerbauer, Marcus Klamert, and Jonathan Tomkin

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198794561

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2021

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198794561.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 21 October 2021

Article 189 TFEU

Article 189 TFEU

(p.1509) Article 189 TFEU
The EU Treaties and the Charter of Fundamental Rights

Sacha Garben

Oxford University Press

For a long time, space policy was pursued outside the EU framework either by MS individually or through independent cooperation structures, such as the European Space Agency (ESA). The intergovernmental ESA Convention was signed in Paris on 30 May 1975 by Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the UK and entered into force on 30 October 1980. While the EU’s involvement in space activities had been developing already since the 1980s, with the establishment of the Galileo and Copernicus space programmes at the turn of the millennium, these activities were only given a firm footing in the EU primary law by the ToL’s introduction of Article 189 TFEU.

Keywords:   European Space Agency, Horizon 2020 research framework programme, framework programmes, space policy

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