Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
CommandsA Cross-Linguistic Typology$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald and R. M. W. Dixon

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780198803225

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198803225.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 23 October 2021

Commands as a form of intimacy among the Karawari of Papua New Guinea

Commands as a form of intimacy among the Karawari of Papua New Guinea

(p.266) 13 Commands as a form of intimacy among the Karawari of Papua New Guinea

Borut Telban

Oxford University Press

Over three thousand Karawari-speaking people live in the East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea. Among the Ambonwari, who belong to one of four dialectal groups, canonical imperatives can be marked with -ra or -nda (‘do it!’), with -n (‘come to do it!’), and with potential -mbi (‘should do it!’). Non-canonical imperatives directed toward first person can be marked either with -n (‘let’s go to do it’) or with -mba and potential prefix and- (‘let’s do it’, ‘should do it’). Imperatives directed toward third person are marked with -mba and imperative prefix ka- (‘let them do it’). Negative imperatives have fewer forms than positive imperatives. For an egalitarian kinship-based society, where people’s lives depend on sharing, exchange, and cooperation, commands are a common way of daily communication. Being used as directives, demands, requests, instructions, exhortations, advice, and even greetings, they generate and reflect close relationships and intimacy between people.

Keywords:   Karawari language, commands, imperatives, intimacy, Papuan languages, Ambonwari, Papua New Guinea

Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .