This chapter focuses on the transformation which expatriates deliberately sought. Building on the rich work on sacred space, it adds a temporal dimension. The static, the durable, and the territorial have long dominated the study of early modern Catholicism, even of pilgrimage. However, the journey, as well as the destination, was a constitutive part of spiritual travel. Mobility becomes particularly visible when we scrutinize the element of time. Short-term visits by individuals; the long-lasting impact on their lives of the distribution of relics and shrines; the carefully phased process of spiritual exercises; and the sense of a temporal retreat in preparation for the future alert us to a dynamic understanding of English Catholics’ mobility. Their deliberate decision to journey in order to change shows the formative role of the expatriate experience, in these cases characterized by vibrancy rather than victimhood.
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