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The Welfare State in EuropeEconomic and Social Perspectives$
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Pierre Pestieau and Mathieu Lefebvre

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780198817055

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198817055.001.0001

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Types of Social Protection

Types of Social Protection

(p.47) 5 Types of Social Protection
The Welfare State in Europe

Pierre Pestieau

Mathieu Lefebvre

Oxford University Press

There does not exist a single model forthe welfare state in Europe. Each country has its own model, which is the result of its political and social culture and of its economic evolution. There exist a number of taxonomies of welfare states. In this chapter we favour a taxonomy based on two characteristics: the generosity and the redistributiveness of programs. The main interest of distinguishing among different types of social protection programs is the different implications they have in terms of efficiency, equity, and political sustainability. We observe a trade-off between efficiency and political support on the one hand and equity on the other hand. Other distinguishing features of the welfare state are analysed: individualization, activation, and responsabilization.

Keywords:   Beveridgean, Bismarckian, categorical benefits, decommodification, earnings-related benefits, earned income tax credit, individualization, means-tested benefits, paradox of redistribution, poverty trap, workfare

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