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The Power of Your LifeThe Sanlam Century of Insurance Empowerment, 1918-2018$

Grietjie Verhoef

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780198817758

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198817758.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 June 2021

(p.371) Bibliography

(p.371) Bibliography

The Power of Your Life

Grietjie Verhoef

Oxford University Press

1. Sanlam Archive

A. Papers and Notices

Articles of Association, 1918.

SA RN 3/6/2: Selected advertisements, 1918–1945.

SA Policy Registers, 1918–2010.

SA 1/2/1/1/2 Stone & Cox Life Insurance Tables, 1920, 1927.

SA 5/2/4/2 C: Application J. Bezuidenhout, 15/3/1920.

SA 6/5/1: Letter of application Fanie Cloete, 6/11/1920.

SA Sanlam Chairman’s Report, 1920–1953.

SA 5/2/2: Geboue, 1–20:1919–1938.

SA 1/2/1/3 Rate Book, 1922, 1929, 1931–1936.

SA 5/2/6: Annual Agent statements, 1929.

SA B 1/2 1/2/13/2, Selected brochures, 1935–1938.

SA 5/3/1: Monthly Report 1930–1935: Memorandum Feenstra on Orange Free State.

SA 6/1/7: Sanlam notice to policy holders, March 1946.

SA 5/2: B23: Bursaries: Memorandum to Board, 25/10/1955.

SA 5/2/: D4: A.D. Wassenaar Memorandum, 1/12/1958.

SA 1/2/1/3/3/Vol. 30, Group insurance; Rate Books, 1954, 1967, 1974.

SA 3/1/2: Beleggingsnavorsing: Memoranda insake beleggings, 18/8/1954; 20/10/1954; 14/4/1959.

SA 3/1/2: Sanlam Beleggingsnavorsing: Memorandum insake beleggings in gewone aandele, 9/2/1951: 1–5.

SA 3/1/2: Beleggingsnavorsing: Hoofbestuurder: Memorandum i.s. SANLAM/Bonuskor verhouding, 5/02/1960.

SA 1/2/1/6, Senior Market development, 12/6/1960.

SA 5/2/D4: Donasies SACEE, Letter SACEE.

SA 6/6/1961 Letter Beak–Sanlam, 13/6/63.

SA 5/2: B23: Bursaries: Memorandum to Board, 17/8/1962.

SA 5/2/D4B: Helpmekaar Studiefonds, 1963–1972.

SA Mining and Engineering Journal, 4/9/1964.

SA 1/2/1/3/4, Special tariffs: Memorandum, 22/8/1967.

SA 1/2/1/3/4, Special Tariffs, 9/5/1967.

SA 6/5/1: Memorandum to Sanlam Board, 17/4/1968; Marketing Report 1967.

SA 1/2/1/6: Senior Market development: Letter CRAUF–W.J. Bezuidenhoudt, 12/6/1967.

SA 5/2/: D4B: Memorandum to Board, 17/7/1968.

SA Agents’ Bulletin, 11/07/1969.

SA 1/2/4/3: Sanlam Opleidingsgids vir Verteenwoordigers, 1970.

SA, 1/2/1/2/1, Product Development: Notice, 17/11/1970.

SA 1/2/1/ Product Development A 101, August 1970.

(p.372) SA 1/2/1/: Product Development Report, 11/2/1972.

SA 7/5/2: LOA files: Insurope News, 17/1/1975.

SA Sanlam News release, 20/5/1975.

SA 6/1/6: Confidential announcement. Labrador, Giraffe, Camel, Lynx, Aristotelus, 16/11/1975.

SA Nuusuitreiking 25/6/1979: Press release LOA on Cost structure of Life offices.

SA S 17: Donations, 1980–1989.

SA 5/3/15/3: Training of Black and Coloured people in Sanlam ‘Non-white staff’, 12/11/1980.

SA 5/3/15/1: Non-white staff eating facilities, 9/6/1981.

SA 6/1/6G: Confidential Memorandum on Rembrandt by F.J. du Plessis, 27/9/1982.

SA 6/1/6: Press release, 27/3/1983.

SA 1/2/1/1: Marketing campaign, 6/2/1984.

SA 6/5/1: Chairman’s Address to Annual General Meeting, 19/03/1986.

SA 5/3/4: March 1990: Desmond Smith statement on Sanlam Corporate Identity.

SA 5/5/2: Chairman’s address, 19/2/1992.

SA Sanlam Advertising and marketing survey, March–April 1993.

SA 6/5/1: FINWEEK, 10–16 June 1993.

SA G Verhoef (1993) The History of Federale Mynbou Beperk. Unpublished manuscript.

SA Bloudruk, 1/4/1994: 19.

SA 7/5/1, LOA Minutes, 10/2/1995.

SA Blue Print, 3/1996.

SA 7/1/7: Dr C. Stals Submission to Commission of Enquiry into the affairs of Tollgate Holdings Ltd, 26 February 1996.

SA 1/2/1, Product list, 20/1/1997.

SA Sanlam Exco, 27/05/1997.

SA 5/2/1: Confidential report on changes in the individual insurance sector—Sanlam Board, 26/2/1997.

SA Sanlam Share Offers. Prospectus, 28/10/1998.

SA Press Release, 8/3/2000: Sanlam retains its shareholding in ABSA.

SA 1/2/1: Product development: Sanlam 100-Plus Policy document.

SA 3/1/3/2: Lenings aan Koshuise, A, B; 3/1/4/2: Letter Provincial.

SA Sanlam: Policy register, 1.

SA SIM Report to the Public Investment Commissioners on the Action Plans i.t.o. section H.2 of the mandate, July 2001.

SA 7/1/7: Sanlam submission to Davis Commission, 13/6/2001.

SA News Release: ‘Sanlam verkoop sy gesondheidsorgbesidheid aan Medscheme’, 1/10/2001.

SA 7/1/3/1/1/: Genmin planning for Union Corporation acquisition.

SA 3/5/5: KMB/CSI: ‘Thinking ahead, staying relevant’. Transformation Report, 2003: 1.

SA News Release: ‘Sanlam kontrakteer IT infrastruktuur uit’, 25/1/2001.

SA J. v Zyl: Presentation to Sanlam Human Resources Committee, 26/1/2003.

SA Sanlam Ltd Board Summit, Erinvale, Somerset West, 3+4/8/2004.

SA Sanlam Group strategy and business structure, 22/4/2004.

SA 5/3/12/13/1 (2): Sanlam Demutualization Trust, 1998–2008 Chairman’s Report, 3/6/2009.

SA 3/5: Sanlam: New Dawn, Organizational Design Distribution Sales Organization.

SA F. Louw. 2005. Thinking Ahead: Sanlam’s approach to corporate social investment. February 2005.

SA J. van Zyl (Sanlam CEO) and J. Rowe (Aflife CEO) presentation to Sanlam Life Board, 24/2/2005.

SA 4/24: Marketing Research: J. Dommisse (2006) Profile and penetration of insurance companies. SAARP AAMPS Survey 2006.

(p.373) SA Report by D.C. van der Merwe: ʼn Ondersoek na die invloed van ʼn ‘Prestasie-oriëntasiekursus’ op die verteenwoordigers van ʼn lewensversekeringsmaatskappy.

SA Sanlam. Riding the wave: Sanlam’s socio-economic impact in South Africa and beyond. Sanlam, 2013.

SA Sanlam: The IT journey from 1990 to 2014.

SA 7/1/7: Sanlam submission to Heath Commission of Inquiry.

SA Sanlam Business Philosophy, November 2012.

SA Sanlam Personal Finance, July 2013.

SA Sanlam Product List, August 2013.

SA Sanlam Personal Finance, September 2014.

SA Sanlam Executive Committee documents: Fifth Floor, Sanlam Head Office: Truth and Reconciliation Commission Submission documents, 1997.

B. Letters and Personal Documents

SA Letter Fichardt–Santam Provisional Board, 12 April 1918.

SA 6/5/1 Letter C.R. Louw–W.A. Hofmeyr, 3/10/1918.

SA 6/5/1: Letter MacDowall–De Klerk, 23/10/1919.

SA 6/5/1: Feenstra correspondence, 9 June 1920.

SA 6/5: Feenstra biographical papers: Letter Feenstra–Macdowall, 9/6/1920.

SA 6/5/1: MacDowall to Chairman, Santam dated 25/05/1920.

SA 5/2/4/2: Geskiedkundige Memos en Briewe: ‘D.P. de Klerk: Eerste Trustbestuurder van Sanlam.’

SA 6/1/1/5: W.J. Bezuidenhout Biographical documents: Minutes of Special AGM 1 May 1923.

SA 6/1/1/5; W.J. Bezuidenhout Biographical documents: Minutes of Extraordinary Special Annual General Meeting of shareholders, 1 May 1923; Africa Insurance Record, July 1924: 36.

SA 5/2/4/2/1: Letter Secretary–General Manager, 30/11/1925.

SA 5/4/2/1/2 Correspondence Johannesburg Branch manager–Secretary, 11/7/27.

SA 4/10: Letter J.C.W. Louw–M.S. Louw, 2/01/1934.

SA 6/1/19: P.A. Malan biographical papers: Letter E. Louw–P.A. Malan, 9/9/1939.

SA: 6/1/19: P.A. Malan biographical papers.

SA 6/1/7/; M.S. Louw papers: Memorandum aan die Raad insake finansieringsmaatskappy, 20/10/1938. SA 6/1/7: Personal documents M.S. Louw: FVB Statutes and Articles of Association, 27/11/1940.

SA 6/1/7: M.S. Louw address, 12/09/1945, Stellenbosch: Association for Economy and Trade.

SA 6/1/7: M.S. Louw Documents; Vertroulike Memorandum insake die voorgestelde stigting van ‘n beleggingskorporasie die kapitaal waarvan voorsien word deur kontant-bonusse op Sanlam-polisse, 26/02/1945: SA: 6/1/7: M.S. Louw Memorandum, 20/5/1945.

SA 6/1/4: H.S. Marais: Sanlam Gedenkboek, July 1946.

SA 6/5/1/8: C.H. Brink papers: Cape Argus, 15/8/1946.

SA 6/7/1: M.S. Louw documents: M.S. Louw address to FAK: ‘Opkoms van die Afrikaner op ekonomiese gebied’, 14/3/1950.

SA 6/1/7: M.S. Louw biographical papers: Memorandum G.D. Wilson: AHT, 8/2/56.

SA 5/2/4/2: Death letter de Villiers, 19/11/1957.

SA 6/1/7: M.S. Louw personal documents: Saambou. The aim and purpose of Saambou, address delivered to Sanlam managers’ conference, October 1957: 304.

SA 6/7/1: M.S. Louw documents: Address at Sanlam Managers Conference, October 1957.

(p.374) SA 6/1/7: M.S. Louw biographical papers, Memorandum, 13/4/59.

SA 6/1/7: M.S. Louw Personal Document File: Memorandum of African Homes Trust, 13/04/1959.

SA 1/2/1/6, Letter J.A. Vorster–Field staff, 6/5/1960.

SA 5/2/D4A: Letter Wassenaar–Board, 20/2/1962.

SA 6/6/1/5: Interview with P.A. Malan, March 1965.

SA 1/2/5: Sanlam Product development: Finplan 4/2/1977.

SA 6/1/2: Letter A.D. Wassenaar–W.J. de Villiers, 26/5/1980.

SA 6/5 6/5/1, Biographical notes on Servaas Daniel de Wet.

SA 6/6/1: Biography A. MacDowall.

SA 5/3/12/6/8: Letter Deon Basson–Sanlam (G. Rudman).

SA 6/1/6G: Letter du Plessis–A.E. Rupert, 11/4/1980.

SA 6/1/6G: Letter du Plessis–A.E. Rupert, 31/3/1980; letter A.E. Rupert du Plessis, 31/3/1980 (delivered by hand).

SA 6/1/2 A.D. Wassenaar–A.E. Rupert, 28/4/1980.

SA 6/1/2: Letter A.E. Rupert–F,J, du Plessis, 27/3/1980.

SA 6/1/2: Letter W.H. de Villiers–A.D. Wassenaar, 14/5/1981.

SA 6/1/6G: P.E. Rousseau Confidential Memorandum–Sanlam Board, 1/12/1981.

SA 6/1/6G: P.E. Rousseau Confidential memorandum–Sanlam Board, 1/12/1981.

SA 6/1/6G: letter F.J. du Plessis–W.J. de Villers, 16/8/1982.

SA 6/1/6; Letter F.J. du Plessis–W.H. de Villiers, 16/8/1982.

SA 6/1/6G: Confidential Memorandum A.D. Wasseraar–Sanlam Directors, 5/1/1982.

SA 6/1/6G: Confidential letter W.J. de Villiers–F.J. du Plessis, 14/8/1982.

SA 6/1/6: Letter F.J. du Plessis–P.W. Botha, 12/11/1984.

SA 6/1/6: Letter P.W. Botha–F.J. du Plessis, 2/5/1984.

SA 6/1/6: Open letter F.J. du Plessis to 39 persons: Cabinet Ministers, Chairmen of Parliamentary Standing Committees and Chairmen of Public Bodies, 17/7/1985.

SA 6/1/2: Letter A.D. Wassenaar–D.W. Hertzog, 12/3/1985.

SA 7/1/7: Sanlam Subsidiaries: Letter A.S. du Plessis–M.H. Daling, 30/1/1989.

SA 5/3/12: Letter Cosatu–M.H. Daling, 4/4/1998; Cosatu Submission to Portfolio Committe on Finance, 18/8/1998.

SA 6/1/7: M.S. Louw biographical documents; Speeches.

SA 6/2/1 Biographical files P.D. Rousseau.

SA Letter Steve Booysen (ABSA CEO) and Danie Cronjé (Chairman ABSA Board)–Johan van Zyl (Sanlam CEO), 5/11/2004.

SA Sanlam Press release: 25/1/2017.

SA Minutes of Sanlam Ltd Exco: Press Release 27/3/2018.

C. Minutes, Memoranda, and Reports

Minutes of Dagelijks Bestuur: 20/6/1919–30/8/1950.

Minutes of General Meetings: 09/12/1976.

Minutes of Sanlam Ltd Board: 09/01/1999–12/02/2017.

Minutes of Sanlam Life Board: 3/12/1998–27/05/2004.

Minutes of Sanlam Board: 27/09/1918–09/03/1999.

Minutes of Sankorp: 04/11/1986–08/04/1992.

Minutes of FVB: 27/11/1940–1970.

Minutes of Sanlam Ltd Executive Committee (Exco), 2010–2017.

(p.375) Sanlam Annual Reports: 1919–2010.

Sanlam Integrated Reports: 2011–2016.

Sanlam Sustainability Reports: 2012–2016.

D. Sanlam Periodical Publications

Die Sanlam Fakkel, 5/11/1928–1/12/1998.

Inside Sanlam: 10/2016.

Sandaba: 02/2000–12/2013.

Sanlammer, 12/7/1992–16/9/2000.

E. Santam

Santam Board Minutes, 4/04/1918.

Santam Board Minutes, 29/07/1918.

Santam Board Minutes, 30/09/1918.

Santam Board Minutes, 24/01/1919.

Santam Board Minutes, 26/2/2007.

Santam Report to Board of Directors, 28/09/1919.

Santam Bank. 50th Annual Report 1967.

SA Santam AGM, 1953.

SA Santampos Maart 1959: 6.

2. Books

Alborn, T. and Murphy, S.A. 2013. Anglo-American Life Insurance 1800–1914. London: Pickering & Chatto.

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Arndt, E.H.D. 1928. Banking and Currency Development, 1652–1927. Cape Town: Juta.

Arndt, E.H.D. 1938. An analysis of the investment policies of life insurance companies in the Union of South Africa: The need for more Constructive Legislature. Pretoria: University of Pretoria Press.

Barras, R. 1986. Towards a theory of innovation in services. Research Policy, 15(4).

Beinart, W. 2001. Twentieth Century South Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Birkman, U. and Codoni, C. 2004. World Insurance in 2003: Insurance industry on the road to recovery. Sigma, 3, Zurich: SwissRe.

Borscheid, P. 2012. World Insurance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Borscheid, P. and Haueter, N.V. 2012. World Insurance: The Evolution of a Global Risk Network. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brooks, C. 2013. Introductory Econometrics for Finance, 3rd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chandler, A.D. Jr 1969. Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the history of the American enterprise. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Clark, G. 1999. Betting on lives: The culture of life insurance in England, 1695–1775. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Cummins, J.D. and Venard, B. 2007. Handbook of International Insurance. New York: Springer.

De Kiewiet, C.W. 1942. A history of South Africa: Social and Economic. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

De Kock, M.H. 1924. Selected Subjects in the Economic History of South Africa. Cape Town: Juta.

(p.376) Dennett, L. 1998. A Sense of Security: 150 Years of Prudential. Cambridge: Granta Edn.s.

Dickson, P.G.M. 1961. The Sun Insurance Office 1710–1960. London: Oxford University Press.

Dunning, J.H. 1993. Globalisation of Business. London: Routledge.

Du Toit, P. 1939. Van die breë beleid van die Volkskongres (1934) tot die ekonomiese selfstandigmaking as kernvraagstuk. (Address delivered at the EVK, Bloemfontein.) In Referate, Besluite en Presensielys van die Ekonomiese Volkskongres. 3, 4, and 5 October 1939. Bloemfontein: FAK.

Esterhuyse,W. 2012. Eindstryd. Geheime gesprekke en di einde van apartheid. Cape Town: Tafelberg.

Feinstein, C. 2005. An Economic History of South Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Giliomee, H. 2003. The Afrikaners: Biography of a People. Cape Town: Tafelberg.

Giliomee, H. 2013. Die laaste Afrikanerleiers. ‘n Opperste toets van mag. Cape Town: Tafelberg.

Giliomee, H. 2014. Afrikaner nationalism 1875–1899. In A History of South Africa: From distant past to the present day, ed. F. Pretorius. Pretoria: Protea Book House.

Goold, M. and Campbell, A. 1987. Strategies and Styles: The role of the centre in managing diversified corporations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Grobler, J. 2014. Black political awakening, 1875–1949. In History of South Africa: From distant past to the present day, ed. F. Pretorius. Pretoria: Protea Book House.

Grosskopf, J.F.W. 1932. Report on the Poor White Problem in South Africa. Stellenbosch: Pro Eclessia Drukkery.

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Hansman, H. 1996. The Ownership of Enterprise. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Hartman, R. 2012. Ali: The life of Ali Bacher. London: Penguin.

Hofmeyr, J.H. 1913. Het leven van Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (Onze Jan). Cape Town: Van de Sandt Villiers.

Jenkins, D. and Yoneyama, T. 2000. History of Insurance. London: Pickering & Chatto.

Jones, F.S. 1992. Introduction: The growth of the financial sector, 1950–1988. In Financial Enterprise in South Africa since 1950, ed. F.S. Jones. London: Macmillan.

Jones, G.R. and George, J.M. 2009. Contemporary Management, 6th edn. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Jones, G.R. and George, J.M. 2011. Essentials of contemporary management. 4th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Jones, F.S. and Müller, A.L. 1992. The South African economy, 1910–1990. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Jones, J.D.F. 1995. Through fortress and rock: The story of Gencor 1895–1995. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball.

Keller, M. 1963. The Life Insurance Enterprise, 1885–1910: A Study in the Limits of Corporate Power. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Kemp, J.C.G. 1942. Die pad van die veroweraar. Pretoria: Nasionale Pers.

Le Roux, N.J. 1953. W.A. Hofmeyr: Sy werk en waarde. Cape Town: Nasionale Boekhandel.

Leach, G. 1989. The Afrikaners: Their last Great Trek. London: Macmillan.

Little, M.D., Cooper, Richard N., Corden, W. Max, and Rajapatirana, S. 1993. Boom, Crisis and Adjustment: The macro-economic experience of developing countries, New York: Oxford University Press.

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MacDonald, J.R. 1903. What I Saw In South Africa. September & October 1902. London.

Macintyre, A.C. 1898. South African Red Book: a Record of Insurance, Banking and Commercial Affairs. Cape Town: T. Maskew Miller.

Malan, H.R. 1977. William Angus Hofmeyr, in South African Biographical Dictionary. Pretoria: Tafelberg.

Miller, R.J. 1968. Life Assurance in South Africa. Johannesburg: Blue Crane Books.

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(p.377) Müller, C.F.J. 1990. Sonop in die Suide. Geboorte en groei van die Nasionale Pers, 1915–1948. Cape Town: Nasionale Boekhandel.

Pearson, R. and Yoneyama, T. 2015. Corporate forms of organizational choice in international insurance, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Peters, T. and Waterman, R. 1982. In Search of Excellence. New York: Harper & Row.

Philllips, H. 1990.‘Black October’: The impact of the Spanish influenza Epidemic of 1918 on South Africa. Government Printer: Pretoria.

Prahalad, C.K. 2004. Fortune at the bottom of the pyramid: Eradicating poverty through profits. New Jersey: Wharton School Publishers.

Romain, K. 1989. Larger than Life: Donald Gordon and the Liberty Life story. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball.

Sadie, J.L. 2002. The Fall and Rise of the Afrikaner in the South African economy. University of Stellenbosch Annals, 2001/2002.

Scannell, J.P. 1968. Uit die volk gebore: Sanlam se eerste vyftig jaar. Cape Town: Nasionale Boekhandel.

Schumann, C.G.W. 1939. ‘Die huidige posisie van die Afrikaner op ekonomiese gebied’. Address delivered at the EVK, Bloemfontein, in Referate, Besluite en Presensielys van die Ekonomiese Volkskongres. 3, 4, and 5 October 1939. Bloemfontein: FAK.

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Verhoef, G. 1987. Die Geskiedenis van Nedbank, 1945–1973. Unpublished DLitt and Phil thesis, Rand Afrikaans University.

Verhoef, G. 1992. Afrikaner nationalism in South African banking; the cases of Volkskas and Trust Bank. In Financial Enterprise in South Africa since 1950, ed. F. Jones. London: Macmillan.

Verhoef, G. 2010.The chemical industry. South African economy and policy, 1990–2000, eds S. Jones and R. Vivian. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Verhoef, G. 2010. Life Offices to the Rescue! A History of the Role of Life Insurance in the South African Economy during the Twentieth Century. In The Development of International Insurance, eds R. Pearson and R.W. Wright. London: Pickering & Chatto.

Verhoef, G. 2015. The world insures South Africa: Early insurance activities of Insurance companies in South Africa, 1820–1910. In Corporate Forms and organizational choice in international insurance, eds R. Pearson and T. Yoneyama. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 164.

Verhoef, G. 2016. Strategies for market monopolization: the Register of Co-operation and the imperial banks in South Africa in the 1920s–1980s. In Colonial and Imperial Banking History, eds H. Bonin and N. Valerio. London: Routledge.

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3. Academic Journals

Arregle, J.L., Beamish, P.W., and Hebert, L. 2009. The regional dimension of MNE’s foreign subsidiary localization. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(1).

Benfield, B.C. and Vivian, R.W. 2003. Insurance in the 1990s. South African Journal of Economic History, 18.

Du Toit, F. 2016. Sanlam operational update: Strong business get stronger in tough times. Renaissance Capital, 8/12/2016.

Du Toit, F. 2017. Sanlam vs Old Mutual EM life: Past and future RoEV supports SLM. Renaissance Capital, 20/2/2017.

Flemming Martin Research South Africa, 26/7/1999.

Freschi, F. 2010. The business of belonging: Volkskapitalisme, modernity and the imaginary of national belonging in the decorative programme of selected commercial buildings in Cape Town, South Africa. South African Historical Journal, 61(3).

Gamedze, T. Sanlam: Running hard to stand still. HSBC Simpson McKie.

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ING Barings South African Research, 12/1/1999.

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Johanson, J. and Vahlne, J.E. 1977. The internationalization process of the firm: A model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments, Journal of International Business Studies, 8(10).

Kerr, J. 2008. The creative capitalism spectrum: Evaluating corporate social responsibility through a legal lens. Temple Law Review, 81.

KPMG 2015. The South African insurance industry, August 2015: 48.

Mohr, P. 2003. An overview of the South African economy in the 1990’s. South African Journal of Economic History, 18(1–2).

Nash, A. 1997. Wine-farmers, heresy trials and the ‘whole personality’: The Emergence of the Stellenbosch philosophical tradition, 1916–1940. South African Journal of Philosophy, 16(2).

Paterson, G. 2010. Warburg Dillon Reid: Life Assurance. Sanlam. Reuters RIC, 24/4/2010.

Paterson, G. 2010. Warburg Dillon Reid: Life Assurance. Sanlam. Reuters RIC, 24/8/2010.

(p.379) Pelser, A.N. 1941. Die Arm-blanke in die Suid-Afrikanse Republiek tussen die jare 1852–1899. Historiese Studies, 2(4).

Pettigrew, A.M. 1987. Context and action in the transformation of firms. Journal of Management Studies, 24(6).

PWC: Africa insurance trends, October 2014: 7.

PWC: Insurance through challenging times: Insurance industry analysis, 2016: 42.

Salmon, M. 2016. Life Insurance: Investec sector review, 12/4/2016.

Simkins, C. 1999. The political economy of South Africa in the 1970s. South African Journal of Economic History, 14(13).

Singleton, J. and Verhoef, G. 2010. Regulation, deregulation and internationalization in South African and New Zealand banking. Business History, 52(4).

Smit, B.W. and Mocke, B.A. 1991. Capital flight from South Africa: magnitude and causes. South African Journal of Economics, 59(2).

Suddaby, R., Foster, W.M., and Trank, C.Q. 2010. Rhetorical history as a source of competitive advantage. Advances in Strategic Management, 27.

Udayasankar, K. 2008. Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Size. Journal of Business Ethics. 83(2008).

Verhoef, G. 1995. ‘Nationalism and Free Enterprise in Mining: The Case of Federale Mynbou, 1952–1965’, The South African Journal of Economic History, 10(1): 89–107.

Verhoef, G. 2003. The invisible hand: the roots of black economic empowerment, Sankorp and societal change in South Africa, 1985–2000’. Journal for Contemporary History, 28(1).

Verhoef, G. 2005. Afrikanernasionalisme in die besigheidswêreld. ‘n Verenigde front? Joernaal vir Eietydse Geskiedenis, 30(1).

Verhoef, G. 2006. Die stigting van instellings as werktuie in die ekonomiese opbouproses van die Afrikaner sedert die Anglo-Boereoorlog. Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe, 46(2).

Verhoef, G. 2006. The History of Medical Aid provision in South Africa’s public sector. Social Science History, 30(4).

Verhoef, G. 2008. ‘Nationalism, social capital and economic empowerment: SANLAM and the economic upliftment of the Afrikaner people, 1918–1960’, Business History, Special Issue: Putting Social Capital to Work. 50(6): 694–713.

Verhoef, G. 2009. Concentration and competition: The changing landscape of the banking sector in South Africa 1970–2007. South African Journal of Economic History, 24(2).

Verhoef, G. 2009. The development of diversified conglomerates: the case of Federale Volksbeleggings—a case study. Joernaal vir Eietydse Geskiedenis, 24(2).

Verhoef, G. 2016. Die onderneming en die gemeenskap: Korporatiewe maatskaplike betrokkenheid deur Sanlam, 1918–1980. Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe, 54(4).

Verhoef, G. and Keneley, M. 2011. Pressures for change in the Australian and South African insurance markets: a comparison of two companies. Competition and Change, 15(2).

Vermeulen, H.J. 1997. The subtext of Pieter Fourie’s ‘Donderdag se mense’ and the demise of Afrikaner nationalism. Journal of Literary Studies, 13(3–4).

Von Wielligh, S.P. 2005. Financial reporting by South African long term insurers: A comparative study. Meditari Accountancy Research, 1(1).

Waddock, S.A. and Grave, S.B. 1997. The Corporate Social Performance–Financial Performance Link. Strategic Management Journal, 18(4).

Westall, O.M. 2003. The history of insurance. In Business History, 44(1).

Windsor, D. 2001. The Future of Corporate Social Performance. The International Journal of Organisational Analysis, 9(3).

(p.380) 4. Periodicals and Newspapers

Bolyn, L. 2005. Sanlam finalises sale of Absa stake to Barclays. https://mg.co.za/article/2005-07--26-sanlam-finalise-sale-of-absa-stake-to-barclays (Accessed 10 August 2017.)

Brown, W. CLSA: Emerging markets: SA companies update, 29/1/2001.

Business Day, 10/6/2014.

Business Day, 12/5/1993.

Business Day, 16/02/1989.

Business Day, 23/6/1998.

Business Day, 27/2/2002.

Business Day, 28/10/1985.

Cape Argus, 15/03/1989.

Cape Times, 04/05/1901.

Cape Times, 15/2/1982.

Cape Times, 5/2/1987.

Cape Times, 5/9/1985.

Croft, J. et al. 2005. UK bank takes a step back in time with S Africa buy. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/fd54265c-c026-11d9-b376-0000e2511c8.html%3Fft_site=falcon%26desktop=true#axzz4s4uZh94j (Accessed 10 August 2017.)

Davids, G. 2016. Life Insurance Sector Report: Retention in the new growth. Nedbank CIB, 9/6/2016. www.nedbankcapitalresearch.co.za

Die Burger, 14/8/1985.

Die Burger, 28/04/1997.

Die Transvaler, Supplement, 08/06/1968.

Finance Week, 29/03/1989.

Finance Week, 30/3/2005.

Finance Week, 8–14/08/1991.

Financial Mail, 16/2/1996

Financial Mail, 14/5/1982.

Financial Mail, 16/02/1989.

Financial Mail, 16/6/1960.

Financial Mail, 20/11/1992.

Financial Mail, 20/3/1998.

Financial Mail, 24/10/2003.

Financial Mail, 24/12/1964.

Financial Mail, 26/3/2014.

Financial Mail, 27/10/1967.

Financial Mail, 27/5/1960.

Financial Mail, 29/08/97.

Financial Mail, 30/11/1990.

Financial Mail, 30/11/1990.

Financial Mail, 6/6/1960.

Financial Mail, 8/5/1964.

Financial Mail, January 1998.

Financial Mail, 15/4/1998.

Financial Mail, 4/3/2011.

(p.381) Jeftha, A. 2018. ‘Sanlam stock drops on news of R5.7 bn new share issue’, https://www.fin24.com/Companies/Financial-Services/sanlam-stock-drops-on-news-of-r57bn-new-share-issue-20180328 (accessed 30/3/201).

Lambridis, C. 2007. ‘Sanlam Limited (SLM). FY06 results.’ Citigroup, 13/3/2007.

Maake, M. 2017. Sanlam in control of BrightRock. https://www.businesslive.co.za/bd/companies/financial-services/2017-01-26-sanlam-in-control-of-brightrock/(Accessed 08/2017.)

Natal Mercury, 14/8/1985.

Ndzamela, P. 2016. Ubuntu Botho pays R830 m dividend. https://www.businessalive.co.za/bd/companies/financial-services/2016-03-29-ubuntu-botho-pays-r830m-dividend/(Accessed 14/4/2016.)

Njobeni, S. 2018. ‘Sanlam pays dearly for share placement’, https://iol.co.za/business-report/companies/Sanlam-pays-dearly-for-share-placement-14147165 (accessed 30/3/2018).

Personal Finance, 23/10/2005.

Personal Finance, 27/8/2005.

Pretoria News, 16/03/1989.

Sake Burger, 27/2/2002.

Shochot, D. Deutsche Securities: Sanlam Ltd: 7/3/2003.

Staff Reporter. 2005. Barclays now holds 56% of Absa. https://mg.co.za/article/2005-12-22-barclays-now-holds-56-of-absa (Accessed 08/09/2017.)

Sunday Times, 21/11/1982.

Sunday Times, 28/3/1983.

Sunday Times, 31/8/1997.

Sunday Times, 5/03/1989.

Sunday Times, 6/09/1987.

Sunday Times, Business Times, 05/03/1989.

Sunday Times, 06/09/1987.

The Argus, 16/2/1989.

The Cape Argus, 18/6/1982.

The Cape Times, 01/08/1882.

The Cape, 04/01/1918.

The Citizen, 14/8/1985.

The Economist, 2005. Absa’s allure. http://www.economist.com/node/3915787 (Accessed 10/08/2017.)

The Star Business Report, 11/10/1996.

The Star Business Report, 16/6/1996.

The Star Business Report, 20/1/1997.

The Star Business Report, 28/10/1996.

The Star, 11/05/1960.

The Star, 23/02/1990.

The Star, 27/2/2002.

The Star, Business Times, 16/2/1989.

Today’s Trustee, March/May 2017.

Uys, H. Cazenove: Sanlam. Company update, 5/9/2001.

Uys, H. Cazenove: Sanlam Company update, 6/3/2003.




(p.382) 5. Western Cape Archives

WCA: A2213: Private Collection C.R. Louw, Band 3: File Santam 1918, 1919.

WCA: A2213: Correspondence between C.R. Louw and A.E. Rupert, 20/6/61; 7/7/61; 27/7/61.

WCA: A2213: C.R. Louw Collection: Memorandum on Rembrandt, 19/9/1950.

WCA: C.R. Louw Collection: Feenstra–Louw, 1/7/1937.

WCA: CRL Collection: Wassenaar Memorandum to Board: Verskuiwing en beplanning van hoofkantoorgeboue: 12/1/1950.

WCA-A2213: Agreement Santam/Sanlam, 19/6/1945.

WCA-A2213: Memorandum to Sanlam Board, 18/8/1958.

WCA-A2213: Memorandum to Sanlam Board, 29/10/1952.

WCA-A2213: SANLAM minutes of Board meeting, 28/1/1953.

WCA-A2213: Union of South Africa, Private Act, No. 3 of 1954.

6. Other Archives

Banks Quarterly Investment Research: Martin & Company, April 1977: 9.

Banks Quarterly Investment Research: Martin & Company, February 1977: 4.

Banks Quarterly Investment Research: Martin & Company, June 1977: 10.

Martin & Company, Broker Analyst, 1/1/1991.

Standard Bank Archives (SBA): GMO 3/1/62: Report to Standard Bank of South Africa, Ltd London: 13/12/18: 802.

7. Government Publications

Official Year Book of South Africa, 1925, p. 841.

Official Year Book of the Union of South Africa, 1910–1924: various tables consolidated.

Private Act, No. 3 of 1954: Section 5.

RP 87/1972: Report of the Commission of Inquiry into Monetary Policy in the Republic of South Africa.

Registrar of Insurance, Annual Report, 1945, 1948.

Report of the Registrar of Insurance Companies, 1950: 40; Report 1954: 34.

South African Reserve Bank, Quarterly Bulletin of Statistics, 2002–2014.

The Banks Act No. 94 of 1990.

The Companies Act, No. 26 of 1973.

The Financial Institutions Act, No. 39 of 1984.

The Financial Markets Control Act, No. 55 of 1989.

The Financial Services Board Act, No. 97 of 1990.

The Income Tax Act, No. 68 of 1962.

The Inspection of Financial Institutions Act, No. 68 of 1984.

The Pension Fund Act, No. 24 of 1956.

The Safe Deposit of Securities Act, No. 85 of 1992.

The Stock Exchange Control Act, No. 1 of 1985.

The Unit Trust Control Act, No. 54 of 1981.

Transvaal Chamber of Mines, 61th Annual Report, 1950: 60.

(p.383) Union of South Africa: Summaries of Returns deposited with the Treasury by Insurance Companies, 1948.

Union Statistics for Fifty Years (1961): A3–A5; A10; A18; A22.

8. Theses and Research Reports

Adams, R. (2010) Die Ver-Suid-Afrikanisering cvan die Suid-Afrikaanse ekonomie.’n Studie van Sanlam, 1918–1980. Unpublished MA Dissertation, University of Stellenbosch.

Beukes, W.J. (2017) Van Afrikanerkultuur tot korporatief: die geskiedenis van Sanlam se organisasiekultuur met spesifieke verwysing na sy personeel in Hoofkantoor,1918–2014. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Stellenbosch.

De Wet S.R. (2018) The Role of Asset Management in the Transformation of a Life Insurance Company to a Financial Services Group: the Case of Sanlam. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Johannesburg.

Drostie, A. and Verhoef, G. (2015) Management and sustainability: The development of Management in Sanlam, 1918–2015. Unpublished Sanlam internal research report.

Du Plessis, A. (2015) Die Sanlam Veldpersoneel, 1918–2013.Unpublished Sanlam internal research report.

Du Preez, N. (2016) Sanlam en Gesondheidsorg. Unpublished Sanlam internal research report.

Hagedorn-Hansen, Y. (2017) The Transformation of the South African short term insurance industry as represented by the development of SANTAM, 1918–2012. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Johannesburg.

Halleen, S. (2013) From life insurance to financial services: A Historical Analysis of Sanlam’s client base, 1919–2008. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of Stellenbosch.

Hoogenraad-Vermaak, S.G. (2009) ‘n Kritiese ondersoek na die bydrae van Afrikaner sakelui in die vestiging van ‘n nuwe politieke bestel: 1985–1992. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of Johannesburg.

Koen, W.P.G. (1986) Sanlam tussen Twee Wêreldoorloë. Unpublished Ph.D. University of South Africa.

Laburn, V. (2011) The economics of Corporate Social Investment: Sanlam and Corporate Social Responsibility expenditure, 1970 to 2008. Unpublished MCom Minor dissertation. University of Stellenbosch.

Sanlam Computer Research Group (2014) Sanlam: The IT journey from 1990 to 2014: Unpublished Sanlam internal research report.

Venter. L (2016) The history of Sanlam Broker Division. Unpublished Sanlam internal research report.

Venter, L. (2016) Historical overview of the Regional Head Office (RHO) structures within Sanlam(1990–1998) Unpublished Sanlam internal research report.

Venter, L. (2016) Development of Human Resources 1994–2015 with Sanlam. Unpublished Sanlam internal research report.

9. Interviews

Email communication G. Rudman–G. Verhoef, 22/4/2010.

Email communication G. Rudman–Sanlam Corporate Office, 31/8/2017; 30/9/2017.

Interview D. Hickey, 9/6/2014.

Interview David Hickey, 13/5/2013.

Interview Desmond Smith, 14/6/2017; 10/8/2017.

Interview Frederick Stroebel, 13/12/2015.

(p.384) Interview G. Rudman, 14/11/2007; 12/2/2009; 24/2/2010.

Interview Ian Kirk, 10/8/2017; 16/08/2017.

Interview Ronnie Mason, 18/03/2009.

Interview Walter Scheffler, 24/2/2009.

Interview J. van Zyl, 12/5/2013.

Interview Heinrich Punt, 9/10/2014.

Interview: P. de V. Rademeyer, 11/11/2012; 16/08/2016.

Official email communication: F.A. Stroebel, 30/3/2016.

Interview A.S. du Plessis, 29/9/2016; 18/08/2017.