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Democracy When the People Are ThinkingRevitalizing Our Politics Through Public Deliberation$
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James S. Fishkin

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780198820291

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198820291.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 23 April 2021

Can the People Rule?

Can the People Rule?

(p.13) Part II Can the People Rule?
Democracy When the People Are Thinking

James S. Fishkin

Oxford University Press

Four criteria must be satisfied for popular control: inclusion (the opportunity for everyone to participate), choice (there must be different options to choose from), deliberation (so that the people think about the choices and their implications), and impact (the choices must have an effect, either on the choice of policies or of office holders). What forms of democracy can be used, either by themselves or in combination, to satisfy these four criteria? The book distinguishes four: competitive democracy (popular elections via political parties), elite deliberation (by representatives), participatory democracy (forms of direct democracy as with ballot measures), and deliberative democracy (deliberation by the people themselves). None of these methods is self-sufficient but how might they work in combination? Other topics include manipulation, the “realist” argument for the lack of popular control via elections, and the Athenian system of popular control, especially in the fourth century BC.

Keywords:   inclusion, competitive democracy, deliberation, manipulation, Athenian system, participatory democracy, popular control

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