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Governing Extractive IndustriesPolitics, Histories, Ideas$

Anthony Bebbington, Abdul-Gafaru Abdulai, Denise Humphreys Bebbington, Marja Hinfelaar, and Cynthia Sanborn

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780198820932

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: July 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198820932.001.0001

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(p.253) Index

(p.253) Index

Source:
Governing Extractive Industries
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Note: bold = extended treatment or term highlighted in text, f = figure, m = map, n = footnote, t = table, [-] = intermediate page skipped.

abusa share system162, 187
accountability128, 130, 139, 153, 188, 217–18
accumulation39, 117, 136, 145, 182, 218, 222
Acemoglu, D.17, 22 n5, 26, 79, 105, 111 n5
activists/activism6, 16, 27, 59, 109, 144, 146, 186, 198, 210
Act of Talara31
Administration of Lands Act (Act 123, Ghana)165
African Development Bank138
African Union (AU)128
agriculture/agricultural29, 46, 59, 87, 112 n17, 116, 120, 121, 124, 126, 131, 133, 137, 139, 149, 156, 166, 197, 217
elites64, 83, 104
Aguaragüe, range and oilfield76, 94
Akabzaa, T.152, 169, 176
alluvial mining76, 205
Altiplano (Bolivia)74, 86, 87, 88, 99, 100, 112 n20 see also Andean/Andes
Amanor, K.180, 181
Amazon34, 42, 44, 47, 50, 55, 57, 69 n3, 70 n21, 71 n32, 78, 112 n20
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana, APRA)29, 30–1, 32–3, 34, 41, 69 n5
American Roan Selection Trust (RST)120–1, 131, 132 t4.2
Andean/Andes:
countries15, 213, 219
highlands31, 34, 55, 57, 61, 71 n32, 74, 97, 105, 111 n6, 205, 215 see also Altiplano
mountain range14, 76
Anglo-American Corporation (AAC)120, 145 f4.2
Anglogold Ashanti178, 196 n34
Angola122 m4.1, 135, 136, 147 m4.2
Antamina (mine)44, 47
Aramayos (family)85, 111 n16
Arellano-Yanguas, J.36, 52, 61, 67, 198, 206
Argentina71 n29, 75 m3.1, 76, 77 m3.2, 89, 94, 96, 101, 109, 112 n21
Arias-Ballón (mining company)41
Aristocratic Republic (Peru)29
artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM)11, 14, 24, 44, 47–50, 59, 76, 161 t5.2, 167–70, 180, 186, 189–92, 202, 205, 215–16, 221, 224 n3 see also galamsey
Asante, E.198
Ashanti/Asante154, 156–7, 162, 163, 184, 194 n4, 205
Assies, W.83
Aubynn, A.190, 192, 193
authoritarianism89, 129, 211, 217
competitive authoritarianism69 n6, 125 t4.1, 222
vulnerable authoritarianism154, 155 t5.1, 157–8
autocratic government8, 19, 32, 211
autonomy, regional11–12, 98, 100–1, 127, 208
Ayee, J.152, 176, 179
Aymara55, 69 n3, 74
Bagua70 n21
Banda, R.143
Bank of Agricultural Credit (Peru)29
Banzer, H.22 n6, 82, 96
Barotseland126, 136
Barragan, R.104
Barrick Gold143, 145 f4.2, 146
bauxite152, 167 f5.1
Bebbington, A.26, 119, 187
Belaúnde, F.30–1, 33, 41, 44, 69 n5
Benavides Group41
Beni (Bolivia)100, 101, 104, 110 n3
(p.254) Berry, S.158, 181
Bertram, G.22, 40–1
BHP13
Boer War163
Bohan Plan87, 106, 112 n21
Bolivian Centre for Documentation and Information (Centro de Documentación e Información Bolivia, CEDIB)110
Bolivian Mining Corporation (Corporación Minera de Bolivia,COMIBOL)75, 83, 88–9, 91, 92–4, 112 n25, 113 n31, 114 n34, 202, 224 n4
Bolivian National Oilfields (Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales de Bolivia, YPFB)77 m3.2, 95–6, 98, 101, 106, 112 n25, 115 n54
Booth, D.8, 72
Botswana153, 194 n2
Brazil13, 43 m2.1, 49 m2.2, 51 m2.3, 75 m3.1, 76, 77 m3.2, 89, 96, 98, 100–1, 109, 112 n20, 114 n42, 224 n2
British mining companies see United Kingdom
British South Africa Company (BSAC)115, 117, 119, 124, 125 t4.1, 131, 132 t4.2
Broz, J. (Tito)135
Burkina Faso153
Busch, G.81
Busch Law (Bolivia)95
Busia, K. A.155 t5.1, 159
Cajamarca (Bolivia) 43 m.1 campesinos see peasants
Canada133, 144, 146
Cano, A.48 [-]50
canon minero (Peru) see mining canon
capitalism138, 144, 146, 148, 149, 161 t5.2, 163–4, 200, 202–3
cash transfer programme100, 114 n38, 174 see also social protection
Catavi massacre88
caudillos28, 39, 111 n12
Central African Federation (CAF)120–1, 125 t4.1, 126, 131, 134,
centralization11, 22, 73, 120, 146, 154, 159, 165, 184–5, 193, 201, 217 see also decentralization
central–local relations see national–subnational relations
CENTROMIN42, 69 nn9, 11, 70 nn13, 23, 71 n25
Cerro de Pasco Mining Company (CPMC)39–40, 42, 44, 69 n8
Cerro Verde (mine)44, 71 n26
Chaco (Bolivia)76, 94–5, 99, 106, 215
Chaco War80–1, 85, 94, 100, 102, 111 n15, 114 n39
Chapare (Bolivia)89, 97, 99
Chazan, N.181
chieftaincies (Ghana)12, 154, 181 see also traditional authorities, stools
Chile29, 32, 43 m2.1, 49 m2.2, 51 m2.3, 61, 66, 71 n29, 75 m3.1, 77 m3.2, 98, 99, 111 n12, 112 nn20, 21, 133, 203
Chiluba, F.123, 139–40, 142
Chimbote (Peru)41
China13, 58, 102, 132 t4.2, 134, 144–6
Chinalco13
China Non-Ferrous Metals Company145 f4.2
Chuquisaca (Bolivia)76, 102, 106
citizenship rights1, 25, 209, 218, 222
civil society20, 22 n9, 63, 67, 118, 128, 129, 130, 132 t4.2, 140, 142–3, 169, 220
clientelism7, 8, 9, 79, 82, 161
competitive clientelism8, 82, 108, 142, 154–7, 155, 159–60, 174, 176–80, 188, 190, 191, 192, 210, 211–14, 221, 223
coalitions6, 8, 11, 23, 26, 65, 67, 73, 80, 81, 82–3, 126, 142, 149, 153, 158, 159, 165, 172, 176, 182, 185, 186, 187–8, 191, 194, 196 n33, 216, 218, 222 see also elections
COB see Confederation of Bolivian Workers
coca: cocaleros (coca growers)83, 89, 97, 99, 112 n26
eradication99
Cochabamba (Bolivia)75 m3.1, 77 m3.2, 89, 99, 106, 110, 110 n3
cocoa157, 170, 172, 182, 194 n1
Cold War30, 32, 134, 138
colonialism5, 14, 15, 19, 200–1, 208
colonial period (Bolivia)79–80, 90, 110–11 nn4, 5, 6, 12, 114 n33, 194 n7
colonial period (Ghana)152, 154–7, 163–4, 165, 180–1, 184, 195 n24
colonial period (Peru)23, 38
colonial period (Zambia)119–21, 124–6, 131–3, 148
internal87, 89, 112–13 n26 see also pre-colonial period
competitive clientelism, see clientelism
Comité Cívico (Citizen’s Committee, Bolivia)95–6
commodities78, 145
boom/super-cycle86, 169, 170, 208, 220
chains
exports, see exports
markets66, 80, 85, 108–9, 203, 218, 219
prices19, 59, 124, 125 t4.1, 148, 173, 200, 201–2, 213, 214, 217
transport22 n3 see also infrastructure
(p.255) communal lands25, 63
Communist Party (Peru)30
Communist Party of Peru–Shining Path (Partido Comunista del Peru–Sendero Luminoso)33, 34–5, 44
competitive authoritarianism, see authoritarianism
concessions:
artisanal and small-scale mining42, 44, 90–1, 114 n36, 167, 192, 194 n9
hydrocarbons55
medium and large-scale mining113 n31, 119, 163, 192
non-concessional deposits40
spatiality46, 48, 49 m2.2, 205
system45, 52, 53 f2.6–7, 63, 92, 101, 163–4, 179, 180–1, 187, 191
tax141
water99
Confederation of Bolivian Workers (Central Obrera Boliviana, COB)82, 91
Conga (mine)54
constitution23, 83, 115, 140, 142, 165, 187, 222
of Bolivia, 200990, 102, 105
of Ghana, 1960157
of Ghana, 1969181
of Ghana, 1979181
of Ghana, 1992182, 185, 192
of Peru, 192029
of Peru, 197933
of Peru, 199335, 69 n6
and resource nationalism207
contamination, environmental108, 190
Contreras, M.81, 86–7
Convention People’s Party (CPP, Ghana)155 t5.1, 156–7, 165, 181
cooperative mining11–12, 75, 84, 90–4, 107, 109, 113–14 nn27, 29, 31–4, 36, 216
co-optation strategy129, 157, 186, 193, 212
copper40, 115, 119, 205
demand for38, 120, 223
deposits37, 41, 74, 131
extraction methods41
ideas of14, 219
mine12, 42, 44, 47, 136, 145 f4.2
prices42, 115, 123, 127, 128, 133, 135, 137, 139–40, 142–3, 149, 201
production41, 71 n26, 126
Zambian industry115, 119–20, 131–48, 220 see also commodities
Copperbelt (Zambia)12, 116, 121, 122 m4.1, 124[-]6, 128–9, 131[-]3, 136, 139, 146, 147 m4.2, 148, 201, 205, 206, 215
corporate social responsibility (CSR)15, 36, 123, 203, 206
corruption8, 23, 29, 32, 36, 45, 62, 66, 106, 123, 140, 144, 148, 190–1, 218, 220
cotton40, 69 n5
coup d’état29, 30, 31, 32, 36, 81, 82, 89, 95, 111 n14, 123, 127, 138, 154, 155 t5.1, 157–8, 181
Crabtree, J.66, 73, 209
Cuajone (mine)42
Cuba30
Cuzco (Peru)40
Dargent, E.35, 209
Davis, G. A.1
debt crisis44, 89, 96, 106
decentralization11–12, 24, 36–7, 47, 48, 52, 55, 62, 66, 73, 89, 97, 104, 114 n45, 115 n53, 141, 203 see also centralization
decolonization154–7, 181 see also independence, post-colonial period
democracy/democratic4, 5, 23, 24, 67, 68, 69 n6, 82, 108, 158, 159, 171, 196, 198, 212
choiceless139
competition19
consolidation26
democratic spring (Peru)30, 40
institutions4, 25, 125 t4.1, 196
multiparty119, 129, 130, 135, 138, 140, 153, 154, 155 t5.1, 159, 182, 222
pacted83, 84 t3.1, 97–8
process62
property-owning democracy155 t5.1, 169
reform30
transition to democracy33–4, 36–7, 45, 48, 50, 62, 65, 66, 119, 130, 138, 192, 194 see also elections
Democratic Republic of the Congo32, 120, 122 m4.1, 124, 133, 135, 136, 147 m4.2
Department for International Development (DfID, UK), see United Kingdom
development
models of14–15, 68, 94, 107, 148
resource dependent4, 207 see also resource curse
rural15, 61, 88, 107, 115, 127, 128, 134, 189
(p.256) sustainable58, 65, 117
uneven127, 133, 134 see also urban–rural divide
Development Agreements123, 128, 131 t4.2, 140, 143, 144, 148
developmental state see state
diamonds152, 167 f5.1
di John, J.7, 71, 118, 140, 194
displacement76, 83, 94 see also place
dispossession28, 218, 222 see also land, place, property rights, territory
distribution
of power7–9, 12, 26, 27, 64, 72
of rents/wealth7–9, 13, 14, 25, 26, 50–4, 55, 59, 60, 67, 70 n17–18, 77, 83 t3.1, 100–1, 103–4, 105, 107
district assemblies (Ghana)159, 183 f5.5, 185, 206
dominant party/leader settlement8, 19, 81, 83, 84 t3.1, 102, 108, 129, 154, 155 t5.1, 158–9, 192, 203, 208, 211, 213, 214, 218, 221–2
Don Mario (mine)76, 113 n28
Dumett, R. E.162, 163–4, 187, 194 n10
Dunkerley, J.89
Dutch Disease213
Eastern Lowlands, Bolivia76, 80, 82, 83, 94, 97, 100, 109, 112–13 n26, 205
Economic Recovery Programme(ERP), Ghana158
Effective States and Inclusive Development Research Centre (ESID)18, 22 n4
elections, electoral22, 29, 33, 82–4 t3.1, 89, 105, 108, 110, 123, 127, 136, 138, 148, 187, 211–12, 214, 216–17
competition128–30, 138, 159–60, 176–7, 179, 191–3, 196 n33, 216
cycles8, 62, 129, 138, 142, 179, 182, 211
discussion of specific election, Peru:29, 30, 33–4, 36, 224 n6; Bolivia: 82, 83, 89, 100, 102, 113, 208; Zambia: 129, 140, 143; Ghana: 155 t5.1, 156–7, 172, 191, 195 nn18, 31
electorate62, 111 n9, 142
fraud69 n6, 151 n3
military, elected82 see also military
mining, role in elections57, 143
officials20
quotas62–3, 71 n32
re-election62, 83, 102, 130, 172
rejection of elections32, 140
subnational48, 62, 97, 100, 115 n48, 159, 202 see also national–subnational relations
suffrage23, 29, 81, 111 n4, 155 t5.1 see also coalitions, democracy
elites
agreement11, 62, 97, 108
bargains/pacts6, 10, 16, 73, 83, 84 t3.1, 146, 153, 182, 222
commitment26, 61, 68, 128, 153, 176–7, 193
inter-elite competition8, 19, 210, 218
military, see military
mining10, 80, 85, 93, 113 n28 see also Patriarchs of Silver, tin
political5, 7, 28, 31, 83, 85, 86–7, 98, 102, 105, 130, 138, 158, 159, 176, 178, 184, 186–8, 191, 193, 198, 205, 212, 216, 221
ruling67, 72, 109, 119, 128, 157, 158, 160, 166, 172–4, 181, 185–6, 191–2, 193, 212
subnational28, 79, 86, 102, 103–6, 157, 206, 217, 220
transnational22 n3
employment15, 60, 66, 77, 84 t3.1, 88, 99, 103, 106–7, 114 n33, 133, 139, 158, 161 t5.2, 162, 165, 167, 188, 202, 205, 214
direct vs indirect59, 188
informal61
laws140
unemployment118, 191
epistemic communities27
ethnicity7, 77, 205
Europe33, 78–9, 85, 110 n5, 116, 126, 131[-]3, 156, 163–4, 194 n8
European Community138 see also colonialism
excluded factions4, 7–9, 11, 13, 18, 28, 30, 32, 64, 71 n32, 72, 85, 90, 97, 103, 109–10, 146, 158–9, 188, 191, 198, 206, 215, 220, 224
horizontal7, 16, 72, 176, 210–11
vertical7, 72, 210–11
extractive:
industries see hydrocarbons,mining
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)2, 53, 132 t4.2, 185
Ghana EITI (GHEITI)185, 188 see also transparency
Fantis154[-]6, 194 n3
Farthing, L.98
Federal War, Bolivia80, 111 n14
Federation of Rhodesia see Central African Federation
Ferguson, J.136, 148, 200, 219
Fernández-Maldonado, J.69 n8
First Quantum Minerals145, 146
First Republic, Ghana154, 155 t5.1
First Republic, Zambia120
fiscal
policy52, 62, 86, 170–2, 203, 209
responsibility141
revenue217, 219
space128, 143, 149
transfers15, 209
fishing40–1
foreign direct investment (FDI)1, 59, 212, 217
Fraser, A.115, 136
free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC)2, 54–6, 221 see also indigenous peoples
free trade agreement (FTA)50, 54–5, 213
Fraser130, 136
French Annales School19
Fujimori, A.22 n6, 34–5, 45, 47, 52, 54, 69 n6, 224–5 n10
post-Fujimori period36, 45, 63
Fujimori, K.52
Galeano, E.14
gamonales30
García Linera, Á.101, 106, 115 nn47, 50
García Pérez, A.34, 36, 52
Gas War (Guerra del Gas Bolivia)89, 99–100
General Mining Law (Ley General de Minería, Peru)44
Geological, Mining, and Metallurgical Institute (Instituto Geológico, Minero, y Metalúrgico, (INGEMMET)46, 69 n2
gender1, 166
Germany29, 50, 156
Ghana Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (GHEITI), see Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)
Gini index60–1, 150 t4.3, 175 f5.4, 176
global economic crisis
Great Depression29–30, 40, 80, 86–7, 111 n16
1970s32, 44, 115, 123, 127
1980s94
2000s144–5, 170
Global Witness197–8
gold187, 189, 194 nn8, 9
artisanal and small-scale mining of see artisanal and small-scale mining
demand for37, 40, 162, 223
deposits37, 40, 74, 151
Ghana, history of extraction in160–76
ideas of14, 219 see also ideas, resource nationalism
mines13, 76, 124
prices48, 166, 170–3, 201
production151, 161, 163, 165, 169, 173 t5.3, 178, 189 f5.6, 196 n34, 216
Gold Coast152, 154, 156, 163–4, 181, 194 n8, 195 n24
governance
natural resources see natural resources see also government, institution, state, taxation
government
subnational (general)2, 12, 15, 52, 59, 66, 198
local/municipal52, 62, 66, 69 n6, 70 n18, 71 n32, 97–8, 101, 105, 107, 114 n44, 115 n53, 134, 165, 215, 216 see also district assemblies
regional/departmental12, 48, 70 n18, 96, 101, 104
national/central29, 45, 48, 52, 55, 62–3, 66, 77, 95–6, 98, 101, 102, 104, 106–7, 114 n41, 116, 134, 146, 181, 182–3, 186–7, 198, 206, 213, 217, 220
Great Britain see United Kingdom
(p.258) Great Depression see global economic crisis guano21 n1, 29
Guaraní peoples76, 205, 215
Guerra del Gas see Gas War
guerrilla movements30–1, 112 n24
Gulf Oil96
Gyimah-Boadi, E.160
hacienda see landed estate
Hickey, S.2, 6, 25
HIERRO PERU42, 69 n9, 11, 70 n13, 23, 71 n25
Hilson, G.189
Hindery, D.113 n28
Hochschild family85–6, 111 n16
holding power8, 10–11, 18, 27, 29, 59, 64, 66, 94, 97, 103, 105, 109, 114 n37, 201, 206–7, 222, 225 n15
Humala, O.36, 50, 52, 54, 55, 70 n21
Human Rights Ombudsman (Defensoria del Pueblo Peru)56 f2.8, 209
Humphreys, M.3
hydrocarbons3, 11, 17, 19, 55, 94–102, 104, 106–7, 111 n12, 112 n26, 178, 202, 209, 213, 218, 220–1, 225 n14
investment99, 221
Law of 2005101, 107, 115 n50
nationalism94–7
production76–8, 87–8, 112 n21, 25
spatiality76–8, 205–6 see also natural gas, oil
hydropower/hydro-electric11, 21 n3, 197
hyperinflation34, 82, 89
ideas6–8, 9–10, 12, 14, 16–17, 62, 88, 103, 109–10, 112 n21, 114 n41, 142, 149, 153–4, 161, 184–5, 187, 190, 193, 198, 199, 201, 207–10, 221, 222, 223–4
change in/new19, 27, 81, 218
development, ideas about31, 58, 82, 88, 93, 96, 105, 211, 214, 218
ideas fuerza94–6, 102
the state, ideas about135
transnational135, 169, 171, 203–4 see also memories, resource nationalism
identity formation5, 219
illegal mining/extra-legal mining50, 51 m2.3, 161 t5.2, 167, 170, 189–92, 195 n13, 216 see also artisanal and small-scale mining,galamsey
ILO 169 (1989 Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention of the International Labour Organization)47, 54–6, 70 n21
imaginary, national development see ideas
import substitution industrialization (ISI)32
incentives2, 7, 10, 161, 184, 190, 197–8, 211, 218, 223
to extract5
investment/tax36, 45, 140–1, 143–4, 166, 209
political5, 26, 59, 60, 62, 63, 66, 108, 118–19, 128, 130, 160, 176, 187, 193, 212
inclusive development see development
independence
Bolivia111 n12, 112 n19, 115 n51
Ghana154, 156–7, 158, 164–6, 170, 181, 184, 188, 208
Peru23, 28–30, 57, 222
indigenous peoples15, 25, 28, 69 n3, 73, 88, 94, 115 n51, 121
entrepreneurship116, 138, 141
exclusion of30, 62–3, 76, 215 see also racism
mining and63, 65, 74, 88–9, 93, 114 n33
movements9, 55, 97, 112 n18, 26, 198
rights37, 50, 55, 57, 65, 67
territory see territory
unpaid labour29, 69 n4 see also labour, Law of Highway Conscription
indirect rule124, 180–1
industrialization/industrial transformation41, 42, 57, 65, 92, 100, 106, 107, 116, 118
informality, informal labour, informal sector35, 48, 50, 51 m2.3, 61–2, 67, 75–6, 128–9, 142, 146, 149, 216, 217 see also artisanal and small-scale mining, galamsey
infrastructure29, 34, 66, 86, 104, 120, 126, 134, 135, 146, 164, 166
export121, 134, 136
mining and hydrocarbons11, 21–2 n3, 86, 101, 119
(p.259) Institute for Land Reform and Colonization (Instituto de Reforma Agraria y Colonización, IRAC, Peru)41; see also land
institution2, 4, 26, 108
of accountability129, 217
change2, 10, 24, 58, 73, 117, 118, 211, 215, 221
colonial111 n6
democratic4, 25, 36, 125 t4.1, 197
extractivist78–80, 110–11 n4
form4, 9, 16
innovation27, 65, 73, 199
modernization57, 211
reform27, 214–15
representative62, 67 see also international financial institutions (IFI)
inter-elite pacts, see elites
Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries (CIPEC)32, 132 t4.2, 133–4
International Council of Mining and Metals (ICMM)58, 185–6, 203
International Finance Corporation (IFC)10, 55
International Labour Organisation 1989 Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, see ILO169
International Monetary Fund (IMF)33, 47, 58, 123, 131 t4.2, 149, 158–9, 166, 171, 195 n17
International Petroleum Company (IPC)31
iron ore41, 76, 92–3
Izama, A.6
Japan36, 50, 92
Kabwe (Broken Hill, Zambia)13, 119, 121 m4.1
Kapwepwe, S.126
Karl, T.4, 6, 17, 26, 197, 198, 210
Kaunda, K.120–1, 123, 126, 133, 149, 208, 214
Kaup, B.98, 113 n28
Khan, M.7–8, 17, 27, 72, 94, 114 n32, 118, 155 t5.1, 191, 215, 222, 225 n15
kinship7, 168
kleptocracy/kleptocratic19, 82, 211
Kohl, B.98
Korea92
Korean War120
Kosmos Energy179
Kufuor, J.154 t5.1, 169, 179
Kumasi (Ghana)168 m5.1, 194 n4
Labour76, 81, 91, 107, 121, 140, 148, 164, 188, 206, 216
force61, 74, 114 n33, 189
forced labour28–9, 110–11 n4, 162, 194 n7; see also Law of Highway Conscription
informal35, 75, 129
market16, 35, 60, 63, 156, 213, 217
migration124–6, 133, 148
productivity61
reform64
rights25, 40, 61–2, 64, 131[-]3
unions/movements5, 29, 32, 40, 61, 81, 82, 83, 86–8, 109–10, 121, 201–2, 208
land25, 163, 167
ownership160, 181, 186
landowner29–30, 57, 80, 186; see also landed estate
landed estate (hacienda)64, 81, 88, 94
La Oroya (Peru)44
La Paz (Bolivia)74, 75 m3.1, 77 m3.2, 78, 80, 85–6, 88, 94, 96, 98, 104, 106, 110 n3, 111 n14, 113 n28, 115 n51
Larmer, M.116
Las Bambas (mine)71 n26
Law Association of Zambia (LAZ)128
law enforcement70 n21, 92, 107, 113 n26, 190–1, 192
Law of Highway Conscription (Ley de Conscripción Vial, Peru)69 n4
Law of Prior Consultation (Peru)55, 63
Law of Promotion of Gold Mining in the Peruvian Amazon44
LEAP, Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty
Leguía, A.29
Levy, B.8, 125 t4.1, 141, 176, 210, 214
Liberty Movement (Movimiento Libertad Peru)34
Lima (Peru)28, 43 m2.1, 49 m2.2, 51 m2.3, 53 f2.7, 63, 66
Lithium92–3
Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP)174, 175 f5.3; see also cash transfer programme
Livelihoods107, 185, 191, 216
longue durée19, 73, 79, 109, 117, 180, 214, 216–18, 219, 221–2
(p.260) Lungu, E.129
Lungu, J.136
Lusaka (Zambia)116, 121, 122 m4.1, 129, 133, 148, 215
Madre de Dios (Peru)40, 53 f2.7, 76, 205
Mahama, J.155 t5.1, 172, 178, 192, 195 n31, 200
Mahoney, J.2
Malawi120, 122 m4.1, 126, 146 m4.2; see also Nyasaland
Manganese152, 167 f5.1
Marcona Mining Company (mMC)41–2
Mariátegui, J. C.30
materiality of natural resources17, 103, 199, 205–7, 222, 223
Mazoka, A.140
memories9, 11, 14, 21, 149, 187; see also ideas
Mercury Law,1989 (PNDC Law 217, Ghana)167–8
Mercury Ordinance Law of 1933 (Ghana)164
Mesa, C.100, 114 n46, 115 n48
meta-settlements117, 217, 222
methodological nationalism18
Mexican Petroleums (Petróleos Mexicanos), see PEMEX
middle class30, 61, 64, 67, 133
urban29, 88, 96, 100
vulnerable61, 63, 67
military34–5, 36, 44, 50, 62, 65, 80, 82, 92, 99, 127, 194 n5
elites4, 7, 26, 52, 83
rule31–4, 35, 41–4, 57, 64, 68, 69 n8, 81, 82, 84 t3.1, 89, 95, 96, 106, 111 n12, 112–13 n24, 26, 154, 155 t5.1, 157–8, 166, 181–2, 214 see also coup d’état
Millennium Development Goals173, 195 n21
Mineral Development Fund (Ghana)182, 183 f5.5, 184, 185, 195 n25, 209
Minerals and Mining Law (Ghana)
Minerals Act, 1962 (Act 126)165–6, 169
Minerals and Mining Law, 1986 (PNDC Law 153)165
Minerals and Mining Act, 2006 (Act 703)169, 177, 178, 182
Minerals and Mining (Amendment) Act, 2010 (Act 794, Ghana)170
Minerals Commission (Ghana)166, 169, 182, 185, 192
Mines and Mineral Act,1995 (Zambia)123
mining
communities148, 153, 167, 172, 183, 184, 188, 195 nn18, 25, 209
companies20, 30, 39, 41, 42, 46, 50, 52, 54, 58, 71 n24, 75, 86–7, 89, 93, 110, 113 n28, 118, 120–1, 123, 131, 133, 136, 139, 141, 143–4, 146, 160, 161 t5.2, 164–5, 166, 169, 172, 178–9, 183, 186, 188, 190, 192, 194 n8, 200, 202, 206, 225 n12
concessions, see concessions
cooperatives11–12, 75, 84 t3.1, 90–4, 107, 109, 113 nn27, 29, 31, 114 nn32, 33, 34, 36, 216
exploration45, 46, 49 m2.2, 55, 70, 107, 114 n34, 119, 146 m4.2, 218
large-scale11, 21 n3, 22, 24, 30, 37, 45–6, 48, 50, 52, 54, 57, 58–9, 61, 64–5, 107, 152, 167, 170, 190, 191, 202, 216, 224
licenses49 m2.2, 75 m3.1, 147 m4.2, 167, 168 m5.1, 178, 216
medium-scale30, 39–40, 48, 66, 91–3, 215, 224 n5
production42, 44–5, 78
revenue92, 104, 115 n51, 134, 136, 152, 172, 174, 182–4, 186, 188; see also royalties, taxation
rights46 f2.5, 48, 70 n14, 94
surface41, 64, 132 t4.2, 143, 146, 167, 205, 207
underground41, 74, 132 t4.2, 167, 205, 207
Mining Bank (Peru)40, 42, 44, 48
mining canon (canon minero, Peru)52, 53 f2.6, 2.7, 59, 61, 65, 66, 70 n18, 134, 206, 213
Mining Law, 2014 (Bolivia)91–3, 107
mining law (Peru)
Mining Code, 190138
Mining Code, 195041
General Mining Law, 198144
Mining Programme in Solidarity with the People (Programa Minero de Solidaridad con el Pueblo, PMSP, Peru)52
Mining Review Committee (Ghana)170, 179, 195 nn15, 16
Ministry of Culture (Ministerio de Cultura, MC, Peru)55, 69 nn2, 3
Ministry of Economy and Finance (Ministerio de Economía y Finanzas, MEF, Peru)34–5, 54, 71 n28
Ministry of Energy and (Mines Ministerio de Energía y Minas, MINEM, Peru)42, 43 m2.1, 47, 55, 69 n2
(p.261) Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources (Ghana)172, 177, 189, 190
Ministry of Production (Ministerio de Producción, PRODUCE, Peru)69 n2
Ministry of the Environment (Ministerio del Ambiente, MINAM, Peru)50, 51 m2.3, 54, 209
Ministry of the Presidency (Peru)35
Mitchell, T.4–5
modernism15–16
modernization8, 30–1, 46, 57, 62, 67–8, 84 t3.1, 92, 95, 115, 211, 219
Mohan, G.6
Molina, F.105, 112 n20
Morales, E.83, 88, 91–3, 94, 96, 98–102, 105–7, 111 n11, 113 nn26, 31, 114 n46, 208, 214
Morales-Bermúdez, F.32
Mosley, P.139
Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD, Zambia)123, 125 t4.1, 127–9, 130, 138, 140–3, 151 n3
Movement to Socialism (Movimiento al Socialismo, MAS, Bolivia)77, 83 t3.1, 87, 88, 90–3, 94, 96, 98–101, 102, 105–7, 108–9, 208–9, 213, 214, 220, 224 n4
Mozambique122 m4.1, 135, 147 m4.2
multi-facility export zone (MFEZ, Zambia)146
multinational corporations25, 141, 151 t5.2, 166–70, 189, 219
multiparty democracy, see democracy, multi-party
municipal government/municipalities, see government
Musakanya, V.137
Mutún (Bolivia) 76; see also iron ore
Mwanawasa, L.140, 143
Namibia122 m4.1, 135, 146 m4.2
National Coalition of NGOs in Mining (NCOM, Ghana)169
National Confederation of Private Business Institutions (Confederación Nacional de Instituciones Empresariales Privadas, CONFIEP, Peru)47
National Democratic Congress (NDC, Ghana)155 t5.1, 159–60, 170–2, 192, 195 n18
National Development Planning Commission (NDPC, Ghana)178
National Exporters’ Association (Asociación de Exportadores, ADEX, Peru)47
National Federation of Cooperative Miners of Bolivia (Federación Nacional de Cooperativas Mineras de Bolivia, Bolivia, FENCOMIN)
National Institute for Statistics and Informatics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, INEI), Peru
National Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario, MNR, Bolivia)91
National Society of Mining, Oil, and Energy (Sociedad Nacional de Minería, Petróleo y Energía, SNMPE, Peru)47, 58, 69 n2
national–subnational relations11, 154, 180–8, 201; see also autonomy, centralization, decentralization, regionalism, taxation (distribution of)
National Superintendency of Tax Administration (Superintendencia Nacional de Administración Tributaria, SUNAT, Peru)68 n2
Nationalist Party (Peru)50
nationalization14, 42, 69 n8, 81, 88, 96, 98, 101, 121, 123, 127, 132 t4.2, 135–6, 144, 148, 161 t5.2, 164–6, 202, 208, 225 n12
denationalization, see privatization
Native Administration system (Ghana)181
natural gas20, 74, 78, 87, 96, 97–102, 104, 106, 112 n21, 201, 219
natural resource:
exports, see exports
rents, see rents
taxation, see royalties, taxation
wealth3, 5, 153, 223 see also hydrocarbons, mining
Natural Resource Governance Institute21 n2, 152
Nchanga Consolidated Copper Mines NCCM)121
neoliberalism63, 82–3, 84 t3.1, 90, 93–4, 96, 97–9, 106, 108–9, 115 n47, 125 t4.1, 127–8, 148–9, 155 t5.1, 160, 166, 200, 202–3, 212, 222, 224 n10
anti-neoliberal83, 99, 144
ideas62
neoliberal period (Peru)27, 34–7, 45–56, 64–5, 68
Newmont Mining Corporation10, 13, 178–9, 185, 196 n34
New Patriotic Party (NPP, Ghana)155 t5.1, 159–60, 169, 172, 179, 192
(p.262) nickel74
Nkrumah, K.154, 155 t5.1, 156–7, 165, 181–2, 208
Nkumbula, H.126
Non-Aligned Movement134
non-government organization (NGO)50, 52, 54, 58, 74, 100, 169, 197
North, D. C.17, 22 n5, 118, 187
northern Peru205, 207
northern regions (Ghana)173, 174 t5.4
Northern Rhodesia120, 124, 126, 131
Northern Territories (Ghana)156
north–south inequalities (Ghana)164
Norway128
North-western Province (Zambia)122 m4.1, 136, 143, 146–8, 205, 215
NPP, new Patriotic Party
Nyasaland120, 126; see also Malawi
Obuasi (Ghana)168 m5.1, 185, 192
Odría, M.30, 41, 69 n4
Office for Indigenous Affairs (Dirección de Asuntos Indigenas, Peru)29
Office of Administration of Stool Lands (OASL, Ghana), see stools
oil14, 17, 94, 102, 104, 112 n21, 114 n39, 153, 179, 184, 198, 205, 219, 225 n14
companies54, 87, 94–6, 98, 102, 179
dependence4–5
export4, 78
labour99
production78, 80, 104, 112 n25, 174
reserves31, 80
revenues32, 77, 95–6, 106–7, 115 n52, 178, 184, 206; see also royalties, taxation see also hydrocarbons
oligarchy27, 28–31, 57, 64, 80, 88, 222
coastal30
landed29, 31, 32
oligarchies hypothesis79, 105
tin88
one-party state119, 121, 125 t4.1, 127, 130, 135–6, 138, 155 t5.1, 157, 225 n11
open-pit mining, see mining (surface)
Organic Petroleum Law, 1938 (Bolivia)95
Organism for Environmental Evaluation and Fiscalisation (Organismo de Evaluación y Fiscalización Ambiental, OEFA)54, 70 n20
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)58, 61
Organization of American States (OAS)35
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)31, 32, 133
Orihuela, J. C.26
Oruro (Bolivia)75 m3.1, 77 m3.2, 104, 115 n51
Ovando, A.96
Pando (Bolivia)100, 101, 104
paramount ruler (Ghana)162, 163–4, 187
Patiño, S.85, 88, 111 nn15, 16
Patriarchs of Silver (Bolivia)85
Patriotic Front (PF, Zambia)125 t4.1, 128–9, 130, 132 t4.2, 143–4, 146
patronage5, 8, 103, 106, 138–9, 141, 157, 179, 185, 188, 211
Paz Estenssoro, V.88–9, 113 n28, 114 n45
peasants (campesinos)30, 63, 64, 81, 88, 94, 112 n18, 133, 136, 215
organizations31, 32, 82, 100, 111 n37
PEMEX (Mexican Petroleums, Petróleos Mexicanos)95
Peres Cajías, J.79, 86, 110
Peruvian Corporation29
Petrobras13, 98, 100–1
Petroleum Revenue Management Act(PRMA, Ghana)178
Picasso (mining company)41
Pipelines101, 112 n21, 221
politics/political:
appointment137, 160
competition8, 35, 45, 118–19, 131, 138, 142, 210
drivers2, 4, 10, 16, 109
opposition29, 30–1, 34–5, 69 nn5, 6, 119, 125 t4.1, 126–9, 132 t4.2, 136, 138–43, 146, 148, 157, 171–2, 176, 178, 188, 192
politicization5, 148
projects8, 13, 100, 102, 128, 129, 211, 220
stability27, 184 see also democracy, elections
political economy4, 17, 18, 108–9, 118, 144, 188, 219
(p.263) political settlements:
as basis for project6, 17, 64, 73–4, 103, 117, 118–19, 153, 193, 199–200
changes in8–10
contributions to theory of108–10, 194, 210–18, 223–4
definition7–8, 71–2
history of in Bolivia78–85
history of in Ghana154–60, 189–93
history of in Peru28–37
history of in Zambia124–31
natural resource governance and10–14, 64–5, 105–8, 148–9, 218–22
as stable orders7–8
pollution, see contamination
Popular Action (Acción Popular, AP, Peru)30, 33
populism, resource, see resource populism
post-colonial period18, 121, 126, 129–30, 131, 133, 136, 161, 180, 185, 195 n26, 200–1, 220; see also decolonization,independence
Poteete, A.6, 128, 153
Potosí (Bolivia)74, 75 m3.1, 77 m3.2, 90, 92–3, 104, 113 nn27, 28, 32, 114 n33, 115 n51
poverty25, 32, 34, 52, 63, 67, 119, 208
extreme60–1, 173–4
rate60–1, 71 n30, 116, 150 t4.3, 173–6
reduction1, 3, 25, 60–1, 67, 140, 152, 154, 166, 173–6, 189, 201, 213, 214 see also inequality
power:
economic28, 30, 47, 93, 105, 111 n16
holding8, 10, 11, 18, 27, 29, 59, 64, 66, 94, 97, 103, 105, 109, 114 n37, 201, 206–7, 221–2, 225 n15
political4, 8, 10, 31, 35, 39, 47, 91, 93, 98, 101, 105, 106, 109–10, 146, 164, 186, 193, 211–12
sharing99, 155 t5.1, 156–7
Prado, M.41
Precious Minerals Marketing Corporation Law, 1989 (PNDC Law 219, Ghana)167
pre-colonial period74, 110–11 nn4, 5, 154, 161–2, 183, 187; see also colonialism
property rights38, 52, 63, 79, 163, 207; see also dispossession, land, place, territory
protectionism41, 141, 165
protest, see social movement
Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC, Ghana)155 t5.1, 158–9, 166–7, 169, 182
Puno (Peru)40, 43 m2.1, 44, 51 m2.3, 53 f2.7, 71 n30
Putzel, J.7, 118, 194
Quechua55, 69 n3, 74
Quellaveco (mine)42, 44
Quiroga Santa Cruz, M.96
race7, 78, 205, 218
racism22, 76
Rawlings, J.155 t5.1, 158–9, 182, 194 n5
regionalism94–103
Registry of Artisanal Miners (Peru)47
rents2, 13–14, 16, 36, 57, 73, 79, 87, 93, 94, 103, 106, 140–1, 149 t4.3, 176, 184–5, 187–8, 193, 212–13, 217–20, 223
rent seeking57, 99, 118, 141 see also taxation
repression9, 32, 48, 82, 89, 112 n24, 138
REPSOL-YPF98
resistance, see social movement
resource curse3–6, 24, 66, 119, 153, 210
resource dependence3, 217
Resource Governance Index152–3
resource nationalism14, 74, 81, 97, 125 t4.1, 132 t4.2, 146, 148, 161 t5.2, 170–6, 203, 204, 207–10
resource populism207, 221
resource sovereignty5, 41, 78, 92, 96, 101, 164–5, 184, 200, 208
revenue distribution; see taxation
Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces (Gobierno Revolucionario de la Fuerzas Armadas, GRFA, Peru)31, 32, 42, 64, 208
Rhodes, C.119
Rhodesia Railways121
Roan Antelope Mining Corporation of Zambia139
Roan Consolidated Copper Mines (RCM)121
Robinson, J.5–6, 22 n5, 26, 105, 198
Ross, M.3–6, 26, 198
royalties53 f2.6, 2.7, 91–2, 94–5, 106, 115 n52, 128, 131, 132 t4.2, 143, 146, 162, 170, 172–3, 176, 178, 182–4, 185–8, 190, 191, 195 n25, 206, 213; see also taxation
Salisbury120, 131
San Bartolomé (mine)92
Sanborn, C.68, 70 n15, 204
Sánchez Cerro, L.29
(p.264) Sánchez de Lozada, G.83, 90, 97–9, 114 n45, 115 n47, 133 nn28, 29
San Cristobal (mine)92
Santa Cruz (Bolivia)75 m3.1, 76, 77 m3.2, 82, 92, 95–6, 99–101, 102, 104–6, 113 n28, 114 n41, 205
Sata, M.129, 143
Savannah Accelerated Development Authority (SADA)174
Sawyer, A.179
Second Republic, Ghana155 t5.1, 159
Second Republic, Zambia121, 127
Sen, K.220
silver14, 29, 37, 74, 80, 85, 92, 201, 219, 223
Slater, D.26
slave trade163
Small-Scale Gold Mining Law,1989 (PNDC Law 218, Ghana)167
social conflict1, 28, 32, 36, 50, 56 f2.8, 65, 66–8, 92, 96, 107, 209, 221; see also social movements/mobilizations
Social Emergency Fund, Bolivia94
social inclusion32, 97, 102, 106, 200, 213, 214, 218
social movements/mobilization6, 9, 10, 12, 20, 26–8, 34, 44, 54, 55, 58, 59, 62, 64, 76, 83, 84 t3.1, 93, 96–7, 107, 109, 112 n18, 113 n28, 114 n37, 131 t4.2, 142, 149, 158, 167, 180, 198, 206–7, 208, 210, 215, 221, 223
indigenous, see indigenous peoples
labour, see labour
leaders20, 34
nationalist41, 97–102, 124, 126, 130, 132 t4.2, 156, 184
social order7, 11, 27, 162, 186, 193, 212
social policy27, 67, 201
social protection15, 94, 102, 213, 219; see also cash transfer programmes
socialism34, 83, 127, 155 t5.1
Movement to Socialism (MAS, Bolivia), see Movement to Socialism Socialist Party (Peru)30
Soifer, H.26, 203
Solwezi District (Zambia)122 m4.1, 146, 147 m4.2, 151 n4
South Africa120, 124, 126, 151, 153, 163, 194 n2
Southern Peru Copper Corporation (SPCC)41–2, 69 n8
Southern Rhodesia120, 124, 126, 131, 134; see also Zimbabwe
sovereignty, see resource sovereignty
Spain14, 23, 28, 38, 74, 80, 98, 110 n4, 114 n33
stability agreements178–9
Standard Oil87, 94–5, 102, 115 n52
state18–19
building27, 64, 104, 153
capacity25–6, 44, 57, 65, 132 t4.2
capitalism144, 200, 202–3; see also capitalism
developmental8, 83, 144, 148, 201, 211
state-owned enterprises/extraction4–5, 35, 37, 38, 42–5, 83, 84 t3.1, 91–2, 106, 121[-]2, 144, 161 t5.2, 165, 202–3, 204, 208, 214; see also nationalization see also national-subnational relations, territory, violence
State Gold Mining Corporation (SGMC, Ghana)165, 202–3
State House, Zambia139, 143
Statist period (Peru)27, 31–4, 64–5
stools, stool lands (Ghana)12, 161–2, 163, 165, 181, 185–7, 206, 224 n7; see also land
Office of Administration of Stool Lands (OASL)70n17, 182, 183 f5.5, 187, 224 n7
structural adjustment34, 74, 82, 113 n28, 123, 138, 158, 166–70, 216; see also neoliberalism, privatization
Sucre (Bolivia)75 m3.1, 77 m3.2, 80, 85, 111 n14
suffrage see elections
Sumitomo, mining company92
surface mining, see mining
symbolism, of subsoil resources219, 221
Tacna (Peru)41, 43 m2.1, 49 m2.2, 51 m2.3, 53 f2.7, 70 n19
Tanzania122 m4.1, 124, 134, 147 m4.2, 169
Tarija (Bolivia)74, 75 m3.1, 76, 77 m3.2, 94, 96, 99–101, 102, 104, 106, 114 n41, 205
Tawkwa (Ghana)190
taxation25, 28, 64, 124, 125 t4.1, 131, 141, 144, 208, 220
base60–1
distribution of2, 12, 50–4, 84 t3.1, 96–7, 101, 104, 107, 153–4, 161 t5.2, 171–6, 183, 193–4, 206–7, 209, 213
incentives, see incentives
(p.265) income182
institutions14, 68 n2, 182
policy38, 117, 162
rates41, 42, 45, 86–7, 98, 100–1, 128, 131 t4.2, 169, 170, 178
reform123, 140, 143, 170–4
revenues37, 40 f2.4, 48, 60, 71 n27, 78, 86, 92, 94, 107, 115 n51, 149, 152, 171, 173 t5.3, 179
royalty
value-added60, 91, 178
variable profit
windfall52, 143, 149, 169, 170, 172, 195 n14, 201 see also mining canon, rents
TAZARA Railway134
technocrats/technopols7, 10, 26, 28, 31, 33, 35, 36, 45, 55, 57, 60, 62, 65, 66–8, 96, 109, 137, 158, 191, 207–10
Territorio Indígena y Parque Nacional Isiboro-Sécure (TIPNIS)89–90, 112 n26
territory33, 56, 79, 96, 103, 107, 110, 156–7, 162, 198, 205–6, 207, 220
claims17
indigenous28, 57, 74, 76, 89–90, 99, 100, 109, 112 n26, 215
mining/hydrocarbons46 f2.5, 48, 70 n14, 78, 80
national23, 28–9, 79, 87, 112 n19
territorial project10–13
Thelen, K.2
The Post (newspaper, Zambia)128
Third Republic, Ghana155 t5.1, 158
Third Republic, Zambia139
Thorp, R.22, 40–1
tin14, 74, 84 t3.1, 85–9, 96, 109–110
barons, elites80–1
boom115 n51
economy81, 108, 111 n16, 112 n25, 201, 223
market collapse78, 106
Tito, see Broz, J.
Toledo Manrique, A.36, 52, 62
Toquepala (mine)41, 42
Toranzo Roca, C.94
Toro, D.81
traditional authorities14, 124, 159, 162, 163–4, 165, 169–70, 180–1, 183 f5.5, 185–8, 191, 193, 196 n33, 206, 212; see also chieftaincies, stools
transnational
activists27, 109, 215
actors (general)6, 9–10, 13, 16, 17, 21–2n3, 24–8, 58–9, 108–9, 113 n28, 132 t4.2, 153–4, 169, 171, 199, 200–4, 218–20, 222, 223
capital46
companies5, 31, 46–7, 65, 74, 92, 97–9, 189
ideas16, 169, 171
Tsikata, F. S.164, 165, 169
Tullow Oil179
underground mining, see mining
Ulloa, M.44
Uncía massacre86
Unified Confederation of Unionized Peasant Workers of Bolivia (Confederación Sindical Única de Trabajadores Campesinos de Bolivia (CSUTCB))111 n10
Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI, Rhodesia)121, 134
Union Federation of Bolivian Mine Workers (Federación Sindical de Trabajadores Mineros de Bolivia, FSTMB)88–9, 91–3, 113 n31
unions, see labour
United Kingdom28–9, 111 n12, 119–21, 124, 131, 132 t4.2, 154, 155–7, 180, 181, 195 n24, 203
British mining companies161 t5.2, 164; see also British South Africa Company (BSAC)
Department for International Development (DfID)18
United Left (Peru)34
United National Independence Party(UNIP, Zambia)120, 125 t4.1, 126, 127, 130, 136–8, 139–40, 144, 208
United Nations121, 134, 200
United Party for National Development (UPND, Zambia)129, 140, 142
United Progressive Party (UPP, Zambia)126, 128
United States of America13, 29, 31, 33, 39–42, 50, 54, 55, 57, 58, 64, 87, 88, 92, 95, 96, 225 n12
Agency for International Development (USAID), development assistance35, 87, 112 n23
imperialism30, 109
urban–rural divide61, 128, 140, 166, 174
Vargas Llosa, M.34
Velasco Alvarado, J.31–2, 52
(p.266) violence5, 9, 15, 23, 27, 34, 35, 67, 70 n21, 76, 89, 92, 111 n12, 129, 135, 197, 198, 202, 220, 223
state66, 112 n24, 113 n26
vulnerable authoritarianism, see authoritarianism
Walton, M.8, 210, 214
War of the Pacific29, 37, 87
Watchtower Church126
Water War (Bolivia)99
Watts, M.5–6
Weenhayek peoples215
Western region (Ghana)184, 188, 190, 205
Whitehead, L.73
Whitfield, L.156–60, 176–7, 181
windfall tax, see taxation
wolfram74
World Bank21 n2, 34–5, 47, 48, 55, 58, 61, 123, 132 t4.2, 138, 140, 144, 152, 158–9, 166, 169, 171, 179, 202
World War I111, 156
World War II85, 87–8
Yanacocha (mine)13
Yugoslavia133, 134, 135
Zambia Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU)123
Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines (ZCCM)121, 123, 132 t4.2, 136–7, 139, 144, 145 t4.2, 203
Zambia Industrial and MiningCorporation (ZIMCO)121, 123, 132 t4.2
Zimbabwe120, 122 m4.1, 142, 147 m4.2
Zinc37, 40–1, 74, 92