Bolzano’s ethics is a variant of utilitarianism. As an early utilitarian theory, it lacks some of the refinements later developed with the help of concepts drawn from economic theory. It is nevertheless mostly up to his usual standard, with clear explanations of the key points, and fair consideration of opposing views. This relatively brief chapter presents the main points of Bolzano’s exposition of ethics, before looking at some subtle questions raised by duties with respect to beliefs, which he dealt with in a pair of sermons on self-deception and in the Treatise of the Science of Religion.
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