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Life's rewardsLinking dopamine, incentive learning, schizophrenia, and the mind$
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Richard J. Beninger

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780198824091

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198824091.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 05 March 2021

Dopamine and inverse incentive learning

Dopamine and inverse incentive learning

(p.123) Chapter 6 Dopamine and inverse incentive learning
Life's rewards

Richard J. Beninger

Oxford University Press

Dopamine and inverse incentive learning explains that dopamine determines an incentive–value continuum. Novel and intense stimuli innately produce rapid dopamine neurons activation followed by inhibition. The repeated presentation of novel stimuli leads to a loss of this effect. Aversive stimuli, biologically important by definition, often deactivate dopamine neurons and may produce inverse incentive learning, leading to conditioned inverse incentive stimuli with decreased ability to elicit approach and other responses. The offset of aversion may increase the firing of dopamine neurons producing incentive learning about safety-related stimuli. Habituation to stimuli enhances their ability to produce inverse incentive learning, suggesting that inverse incentive learning may occur during habituation. In the end, there may be no “neutral” stimuli, only stimuli that lie on a continuum of incentive value from strong conditioned incentive stimuli to strong conditioned inverse incentive stimuli with most of the things we encounter in day-to-day life falling in between.

Keywords:   aversive stimuli, dopamine, habituation, inverse incentive learning, habituation, intense stimuli, neutral stimuli, novel stimuli

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