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Life's rewardsLinking dopamine, incentive learning, schizophrenia, and the mind$
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Richard J. Beninger

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780198824091

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198824091.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 05 March 2021

Schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

(p.203) Chapter 9 Schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Life's rewards

Richard J. Beninger

Oxford University Press

Schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) discusses how hyperactive dopaminergic neurotransmission appears to underlie schizophrenia’s positive symptoms, loss of dopaminergic neurons in adulthood leads to Parkinson’s disease, and dopamine neuron hypofunction in childhood and adolescence may underlie ADHD. Positive schizophrenia symptoms may arise from excessive incentive learning that is gradually lost with antipsychotic treatment. Declarative learning and memory may contribute to delusions based on excessive incentive learning. Loss of responsiveness to environmental stimuli in Parkinson’s may result from a decrease of their conditioned incentive value and inverse incentive learning. Conditioned incentive stimuli not encountered while in a state of decreased dopaminergic neurotransmission may retain their incentive value, producing apparent kinesia paradoxa. Dopamine hypofunction in juveniles does not lead to hypokinesia but may result in loss of incentive learning that focuses attention. Pro-dopaminergic drugs have a calming effect in ADHD, presumably because they reinstate normal incentive learning.

Keywords:   antipsychotic, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, declarative memory, delusion, dopamine, incentive learning, inverse incentive learning, kinesia paradoxa, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia

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