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Paramilitarism – Mass Violence in the Shadow of the State - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Paramilitarism: Mass Violence in the Shadow of the State

Uğur Ümit Üngör


From the deserts of Sudan to the jungles of Colombia, and from the streets of Belfast to the mountains of Kurdistan, paramilitaries have appeared in violent conflicts in very different settings. Paramilitaries are generally depicted as irregular armed organizations that carry out acts of violence against civilians on behalf of a state. In doing so, they undermine the state’s monopoly of legitimate violence, while at the same time creating a breeding ground for criminal activities. Why do governments with functioning police forces and armies use paramilitary groups? This book tackles this quest ... More

Keywords: paramilitary, militia, death squad, warlord, state, violence, civil war, organized crime, plausible deniability

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2020 Print ISBN-13: 9780198825241
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2020 DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198825241.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Uğur Ümit Üngör, author
Professor of Holocaust and Genocide Studies, University of Amsterdam