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The Biology of Urban Environments - Oxford Scholarship Online
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The Biology of Urban Environments

Philip James


Urban environments are characterized by the density of buildings and elements of a number of infrastructures that support urban residents in their daily life. These built elements and the activities that take place within towns and cities create a distinctive climate and increase air, water, and soil pollution. Within this context the elements of the natural environment that either are residual areas representative of the pre-urbanized area or are created by people contain distinctive floral and faunal communities that do not exist in the wild. The diverse prions, viruses, micro-organisms, pla ... More

Keywords: animals, adaptions, cities, distributions, diversity, humans, micro-organisms, plants, relationships

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2018 Print ISBN-13: 9780198827238
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2018 DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198827238.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Philip James, author
Professor of Ecology, University of Salford, UK