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Gender Parity and Multicultural FeminismTowards a New Synthesis$
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Ruth Rubio-Marín and Will Kymlicka

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780198829621

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198829621.001.0001

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The Combination of Gender and Ethnic Quotas in Electoral Politics

The Combination of Gender and Ethnic Quotas in Electoral Politics

(p.97) 4 The Combination of Gender and Ethnic Quotas in Electoral Politics
Gender Parity and Multicultural Feminism

Melanie M. Hughes

Oxford University Press

Around the world, countries are increasingly using quotas to enhance the diversity of political representatives. This chapter considers the histories and policy designs of ethnic and gender quotas that regulate national legislatures. Most countries with quotas target only one type of under-represented group—for example, women or ethnic minorities. Even in countries with both gender and ethnic quotas (called ‘tandem quotas’), the policies typically evolved separately and work differently. Women and ethnic minorities are treated as distinct groups, ignoring the political position of ethnic minority women. However, a handful of countries have ‘nested quotas’ that specifically regulate the political inclusion of ethnic minority women. The second half the chapter focuses explicitly on nested quotas. It lays out how nested quotas work, where and how they have been adopted, and the prospect for their spread to new countries in the future. The chapter concludes with reflections on the promises and pitfalls of nested quotas as a vehicle for multicultural feminism.

Keywords:   gender quotas, ethnic quotas, nested quotas, national legislatures, political representation, diversity of political leaders

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