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The Handbook of Political, Social, and Economic Transformation$
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Wolfgang Merkel, Raj Kollmorgen, and Hans-Jürgen Wagener

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198829911

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198829911.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use.date: 28 January 2022

Defective Democracy

Defective Democracy

(p.437) Chapter 41 Defective Democracy
The Handbook of Political, Social, and Economic Transformation

Aurel Croissant

Wolfgang Merkel

Oxford University Press

Both new and established democracies have witnessed setbacks in their democratic quality since the turn of the century, while the number of so-called hybrid regimes has increased. The concept of embedded democracy is a conceptual tool to differentiate between liberal democracy and open autocracy. Composed of five analytically separate yet empirically intertwined ‘partial regimes’, the concept of embedded democracy discerns a political regime’s institutional arrangements and its external environment. In addition, the concept allows one to conceptualize and analyse different types of defective democracy within the grey zone between liberal democracy and autocracy. The chapter conceptualizes embedded and defective democracies and engages in a comprehensive analysis regarding the frequency, persistence, origin, and causes of different types of defective democracy in the early twenty-first century.

Keywords:   democratization, hybrid regimes, authoritarianism, reverse wave, embedded democracy, defective democracy, rule of law, horizontal accountability

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