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The Handbook of Political, Social, and Economic Transformation$
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Wolfgang Merkel, Raj Kollmorgen, and Hans-Jürgen Wagener

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198829911

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198829911.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 22 June 2021

Demographic Transitions

Demographic Transitions

(p.465) Chapter 44 Demographic Transitions
The Handbook of Political, Social, and Economic Transformation

Leonardo Morlino

Oxford University Press

The demographic trends of the past 150 years have been sustainably influenced by two demographic transitions. Demographic transformations represent periods of interruption in the constant course of demographic development, during which time the way the reproduction of the population takes place changes significantly. Two periods of demographic transformation can be established that came about around 1900 (first demographic transition) and after the Second World War (Europe’s second demographic transition). The first demographic transformation was marked by the transition from a pre-industrial to an industrial society. The second transition was primarily based on a profound cultural change. Both periods of transformation show a considerable decline in birth rates, but also have specific characteristics. One of the striking features of the second demographic transition is that it is exclusively marked by a sharp decline in the birth rate. The first decline in the birth rate showed both a drop in birth and mortality levels. Other examples of demographic change are the changes in population reproduction experienced in the former socialist countries as a direct consequence of the transformation of society.

Keywords:   demography, first demographic transition, second demographic transition, industrial society, postindustrial society, fertility, mortality, birth rate, ageing, post-socialist countries

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