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The Handbook of Political, Social, and Economic Transformation$
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Wolfgang Merkel, Raj Kollmorgen, and Hans-Jürgen Wagener

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198829911

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198829911.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 22 June 2021

Social Security

Social Security

(p.653) Chapter 75 Social Security
The Handbook of Political, Social, and Economic Transformation

Katharina Müller

Oxford University Press

Social security is the protection provided by a given society to individuals and households, particularly in the case of old age. The design and scope of social security protection differs significantly across geographical regions, countries, and population groups, while also undergoing constant transformation over time. On a global scale, the area of social security witnessed three major paradigm shifts over the past 125 years: (1) formalization, sparked by Bismarck’s social insurance legislation in the 1880s; (2) privatization, initiated in the 1980s in Latin America and subsequently spreading to other regions, mainly Eastern Europe; and (3) universalization, as exemplified by the proliferation of non-contributory benefits in the Global South since the 2000s. This chapter outlines these trends to illustrate the transformation of social security in both the Global North and the Global South.

Keywords:   social security, formalization, privatization, universalization, pensions, non-contributory benefits, Global North, Global South, Latin America, Eastern Europe

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