Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The European Convention on Human Rights and General International Law$

Anne van Aaken and Iulia Motoc

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780198830009

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198830009.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use.  Subscriber: null; date: 28 October 2020

(p.305) Index

(p.305) Index

Source:
The European Convention on Human Rights and General International Law
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
A, B and C v Ireland (25579/05) 25, 3639
A-MV v Finland (53251/13) 9091
access to court (ECHR Article 6), state immunity cases, see state immunity, ECtHR’s approach to: ECHR Article 6 application
Afghanistan, occupation of 99, 100, 102, 112113, 130; see also occupation of territories
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights 300, 303
aggravated damages, see punitive damages
Ago, Roberto (ILC Special Rapporteur) 140141
Akandji-Kombe, Jean-François 141
Al-Adsani v United Kingdom (35763/97) 56, 256, 265
Al-Dulimi and Montana Management Inc v Switzerland (5809/08) 87, 213, 221, 226, 227, 228, 255
Al-Jedda v United Kingdom (27021/08) 128129, 187188, 215, 217218, 226227
Al-Saadoon case:
Al-Saadoon and Mufdhi v United Kingdom (61498/08) 88, 91, 127128
R. (on the application of Al-Saadoon) v Secretary of State for Defence (QBD (Admin)) 101
Al-Skeini v United Kingdom (55721/07) 206
on extraterritorial application of ECHR 98, 105, 106, 129131, 215
on jurisdiction/state responsibility relationship 12, 192, 194195
Allott, Philip 135
Alston, Philip 255256
Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v Serbia and Montenegro) (ICJ) (Bosnian Genocide case) 132, 142, 195, 196197, 253
Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Croatia v Serbia) (ICJ) 197
Arangio-Ruiz, Gaetano (ILC Special Rapporteur) 236
armed forces:
conscientious objection cases 6869, 70
ECHR application to 55; see also extraterritorial application of ECHR
at military checkpoints 131133; see also Jaloud v Netherlands (47708/08)
operations in buffer zones and at borders 126127
occupying forces, see occupation of territories
peacekeepers, see peacekeeping operations
Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of the Congo v Belgium) (ICJ) 252, 253, 258
Articles on State Responsibility for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ILC) 1, 103, 104, 107, 137, 185, 236237
application by ECtHR 179184, 185186, 188189, 197, 198
application in human rights context 1415, 178, 198
prerequisites of state responsibility 247
on reparations 236
Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations (ILC) 15, 179, 185, 186, 198
Aslakhanova v Russia (2944/06, 8300/07, 50184/07, 332/08 and 42509/10) 287
Assanidzé v Georgia (71503/01) 122, 125, 146
autonomous regions, extraterritorial application of ECHR to 122, 146; see also extraterritorial application of ECHR
Avotiņš v Latvia (17502/07) 224
Azemi v Serbia (11209/09) 147
Ban Ki-moon (UN Secretary-General, 2007–16) 255256
Banković v Belgium (52207/99):
on ECtHR’s application of international law 178, 200
on European legal space (espace juridique) concept 130
on extraterritorial application of ECHR 9899, 100101, 117, 119120, 121, 128, 192, 201, 215
(p.306) Bayatyan v Armenia (23459/03) 6869, 70
Beer and Regan v Germany (28934/95) 254255, 263
Behrami and Behrami v France and Saramati v France, Germany and Norway (71412/01 and 78166/01) 128
on indispensible third party rule 164
on state responsibility 185187, 192193, 219
‘ultimate authority’ preferred over ‘effective control’ 15, 188, 198, 216
Benkharbouche v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (UKSC) 257258, 260, 274, 279280
Benvenisti, Eyal 136, 137138
Bosnian Genocide case (ICJ) 132, 142, 195, 196197, 253
Bosphorus Hava Yolları Turizm ve Ticaret Anonim Şirketi v Ireland (45036/98) 15, 17, 179, 184, 221, 222223, 225
Brownlie, Ian 187
capital punishment cases 38, 6566, 7374, 77, 84, 88, 91
Carnap, Rudolf 210
Catan v Moldova and Russia (43370/04) 15, 104, 123124, 129, 164, 190, 202205
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union 223, 224
Chiragov v Armenia (13216/05):
on effective control 15, 201, 207210
on extraterritorial application of ECHR 99, 124125, 162
on jurisdiction/state responsibility relationship 15, 194196
on positive obligations of occupied states 145, 149, 150
Clarendon, Earl (Edward Hyde, 1st Earl) 112, 133
coherence of international law, see convergence of international law
collective bargaining 2627, 75, 85; see also employment disputes
Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman and Degrading Punishment 5051
compensation:
just satisfaction, see just satisfaction
punitive damages, see punitive damages
reparations 157, 172, 174, 175, 234, 235236, 288, 291
conciliation of international law, see convergence of international law
concurrent jurisdiction of ECHR 14, 176177
barriers to recognition 163165, 176
concurrent ECHR duties 166167, 176
allocation of 167169, 174175, 176
distinguished from states’ IHRL responsibilities 169170
legitimacy of 169
concurrent effective control 163, 166, 167
concurrent state responsibility distinguished 157158; see also state responsibility under ECHR, concurrent responsibility
ECHR states and third parties 164, 165
multinational military operations 102103, 106107, 128129
when arising 156, 162
conflicts, see armed conflicts
conscientious objection cases 6869, 70
consensus, European, see European consensus norms
consent of states, see state consent
constitutionalization:
ECHR as a constitutional instrument 3, 4, 3940
of international law 4
consulate staff:
immunity of 173176
work affecting extraterritorial application of ECHR 115, 133
Convention on Diplomatic Relations 1961 274
Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and Their Property 2004 (UN) 3233, 255
Article 11 employment exception 18, 33, 259, 260, 261, 266, 273, 278
as customary international law, critique 271278, 279282
text 271272
ILC’s Draft Articles on 32, 33, 259, 260, 266267, 268269, 270; see also ILC (International Law Commission)
treatment by ECtHR as customary international law 18, 258259, 260261, 264265
critique 266278, 279284
possible rationale 265266, 284
whether defensible 278
Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction 1980 57
(p.307) Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969, see Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969
convergence of international law 2, 3, 212
constitutionalization of international law 4
ECtHR’s contribution to 5, 6, 200201
approach to jurisdiction/state responsibility relationship 201212
conflicts between ECHR and other legal sources 5258
equivalent protection doctrine, see equivalent protection doctrine
lex specialis principle 201, 203205, 211; see also lex specialis principle
IHRL and general international law 4, 19
IHRL and IHL relationship 1213
international jurisprudence, contribution to 5, 301; see also international jurisprudence
judicial dialogue, contribution to 5, 20, 304
two-way street typology 23, 5, 6
Costello-Roberts v United Kingdom (13134/87) 15, 179, 181, 184, 198
Council of Europe 4
European Committee on Social Rights 53, 5455
European consensus norms, see European consensus norms
European Social Charter 26, 53, 54
punitive damages, views on 239
standards setting role 50
state immunity
Declaration on Jurisdictional Immunities of State Owned Cultural Property 2013 284
European Convention on State Immunity 1972 258, 260
Crawford, James 34
Cruz Varas v Sweden (A/201) 73
Cudak v Lithuania (15869/02):
on European consensus norms 3236
Italian jurisprudence applying 280282
on state immunity issues 259, 260, 266271, 276, 279
customary international law 6, 292294
European consensus norms, relationship with 2628, 3236; see also European consensus norms
‘human rights method’ of identifying 67
ILC; see also ILC (International Law Commission)
draft conclusions on 33, 34
role in identifying 266271
non-ratified treaties as 3334
opinio juris, see opinio juris
state practice, see state practice
see also norms
cyber activities, ECHR application to 13, 102, 108, 110
Cyprus v Turkey (6780/74) 115
Cyprus v Turkey (8007/77) 138, 139
Cyprus v Turkey (25781/94) 87, 118119, 232, 288
damages, punitive, see punitive damages
death penalty cases 38, 6566, 7374, 77, 84, 88, 91
Declaration on Jurisdictional Immunities of State Owned Cultural Property 2013 (Council of Europe) 284
Demir and Baykara v Turkey (34503/97) 31, 51, 5253, 75
on the living instrument doctrine 11, 52, 8586, 87
on sources of international law for ECHR interpretation 2628, 41, 55, 8586, 92
state practice 2728, 35, 36
on use of domestic law for ECHR interpretation 27, 55, 69, 86
detainees overseas, ECHR application to 101, 102, 127131
Al-Jedda v United Kingdom (27021/08) 128129, 187188, 215, 217218, 226227
Al-Saadoon case, see Al-Saadoon case
Al-Skeini v United Kingdom (55721/07), see Al-Skeini v United Kingdom (55721/07)
El-Masri v Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (39630/09) 15, 188189, 198
extraordinary rendition 179, 188189
Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09), see Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09)
diplomats:
immunity of 173176
work affecting extraterritorial application of ECHR 115, 133
Dispute Regarding Navigational Rights and Related Rights (Costa Rica v Nicaragua) (ICJ) 37
(p.308) domestic law:
relationship with international jurisprudence 301303; see also international jurisprudence
used for ECHR interpretation 11, 2223, 27, 31, 3738, 55, 69, 86
Drozd and Janousek v France and Spain (12747/87) 192
ECHR (European Convention on Human Rights 1950):
as a constitutional instrument 3, 4, 3940
‘emancipation’ from international law 4, 5
EU’s potential accession to 17, 156, 175, 185, 224, 229
evolution 4
individual application right 178, 223
jurisdiction, see jurisdiction of ECHR
concurrent jurisdiction, see concurrent jurisdiction of ECHR
extraterritorial application, see extraterritorial application of ECHR
margin of appreciation, see margin of appreciation
origins 3
positive obligations, see positive obligations
preamble 201
as a regional system of IHRL 303
special character as a treaty 34, 7, 11, 1920, 27, 3940
state consent to, see state consent, to ECHR
state responsibility, see state responsibility under ECHR
economic sanctions, UN Security Council resolutions imposing 16, 17, 220228
ECtHR (European Court of Human Rights):
advisory opinions 46
case types
conscientious objection cases 6869, 70
death penalty cases 38, 6566, 7374, 77, 84, 88, 91
employment disputes, see employment disputes
enforced disappearance cases 287288
occupation of territories cases, see occupation of territories
cases
on European consensus norms, see European consensus norms, cases
on extraterritorial application of ECHR, see extraterritorial application of ECHR, cases
on jurisdiction/state responsibility relationship, see jurisdiction/state responsibility relationship under ECHR, cases
on living instrument doctrine, see living instrument doctrine, cases
on state responsibility, see state responsibility under ECHR, cases
complaint mechanism 6
convergence of international law, contribution to, see convergence of international law, ECtHR’s contribution to
ECHR interpretation
concentric circles model 1920
conflicts with other legal sources 5258
customary international law use 2628, 3236, 292294; see also customary international law
Demir and Baykara v Turkey (34503/97), see Demir and Baykara v Turkey (34503/97)
EU law use, equivalent protection doctrine 17, 222224
European consensus norms use, see European consensus norms
ILC’s views on 30; see also ILC (International Law Commission)
judicial activism concerns 11, 24, 25
living instrument doctrine, see living instrument doctrine
non-ratified treaty use 27, 41, 86
positive obligations, see positive obligations
(p.309) treaties, consistency with, see living instrument doctrine, consistency with treaties
use of domestic law 11, 2223, 27, 31, 3738, 55, 69, 86; see also state practice
erga omnes effects of jurisprudence 46, 166
fragmentation of international law, contribution to, see fragmentation of international law, ECtHR’s contribution to
judicial dialogue
with IACHR 287, 292, 304
with ICJ 19, 56, 252256
Just Satisfaction Practice Directives 230; see also punitive damages, awarded by ECtHR
preliminary objection procedure 197
punitive damages awards 1718, 230235, 245247; see also punitive damages
effective control:
cases
Bosnian Genocide case (ICJ) 132, 142, 195, 196197, 253
Chiragov v Armenia (13216/05) 15, 201, 207210; see also Chiragov v Armenia (13216/05)
Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v United States) (ICJ) 7, 11, 15, 34, 132, 195, 209210
delegation of 172
distinguished from other concepts 158
ECHR applied extraterritorially, see extraterritorial application of ECHR, effective control
ECHR applied in state’s territory 161162; see also jurisdiction of ECHR
international organizations 15
occupied states; see also positive obligations, of occupied states
effective control replaced with positive obligations 138, 142
positive obligation to regain effective control 161, 164, 166, 167, 168
peacekeeping operations 220; see also peacekeeping operations
state responsibility test 11, 13, 15, 104, 132, 187, 202; see also state responsibility
under ECHR 15, 104, 187188, 193195; see also state responsibility under ECHR
El-Masri v Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (39630/09) (ECtHR) 15, 188189, 198
electronic surveillance, ECHR application to 13, 102, 108, 110
embassy staff:
immunity of 173176
work affecting extraterritorial application of ECHR 115, 133
employment disputes:
collective bargaining 2627, 75, 85
punitive damages 238; see also punitive damages
state immunity issues 18, 20, 3233, 3435, 260261, 271282; see also state immunity, ECtHR’s approach to
Benkharbouche v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (UKSC) 257258, 260, 274, 279280
Cudak v Lithuania (15869/02) 259, 260, 266271, 276, 279; see also Cudak v Lithuania (15869/02)
Fogarty v United Kingdom (37112/97) 260, 265, 273
Italian jurisprudence 280282
Mahamdia v Algeria (C-154/11) (ECJ) 261, 274, 281
Sabeh El Leil v France (34869/05) 260, 274, 277
state practice on 277278
enforced disappearance cases, state responsibility issues 287288; see also state responsibility under ECHR
equivalent protection doctrine:
ECHR and EU law 17, 222224
ECHR and NATO 225
ECHR and UN Charter 225227, 255
EU (European Union):
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union 223, 224
ECtHR’s equivalent protection doctrine 17, 222224
EU Member States, enforcement of UN economic sanctions 222224; see also Security Council (UN) resolutions, execution by ECHR states
Mahamdia v Algeria (C-154/11) (ECJ) 261, 274, 281
potential accession to ECHR 17, 156, 175, 185, 224, 229
punitive damages 238239; see also punitive damages
(p.310) European Committee on Social Rights 53, 5455
European consensus norms 6, 11, 20, 58
cases
A, B and C v Ireland (25579/05) 25, 3639
Cudak v Lithuania (15869/02) 3236; see also Cudak v Lithuania (15869/02)
Demir and Baykara v Turkey (34503/97), see Demir and Baykara v Turkey (34503/97)
Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09), see Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09)
Tyrer v United Kingdom (A/26) 23, 25, 36, 63, 67, 70, 84
definition 23
ECtHR’s methods of identifying 7
judicial activism concerns 11, 24, 25
living instrument doctrine, see living instrument doctrine
margin of appreciation, effect on 3839
as regional customary law 7, 25
relationship with Vienna Convention rules 25, 26, 2730, 31, 32, 35, 39; see also Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969, application by ECtHR
scholarship on 24, 30
sources
customary international law 2628, 3236, 292294
domestic law 11, 2223, 27, 31, 3738, 55, 69, 86; see also state practice
state practice 10, 2832, 35, 36, 7475; see also state practice, for ECHR interpretation
state consent, whether undermined by 24, 3839; see also state consent
European Convention on Human Rights 1950, see ECHR (European Convention on Human Rights 1950)
European Convention on State Immunity 1972 258, 260
European Court of Human Rights, see ECtHR (European Court of Human Rights)
European Social Charter 26, 53, 54
European Society of International Law conference of 5 June 2015 2, 285
European Union, see EU (European Union)
Evans, Malcolm 14, 178, 180, 197
evolutive treaty interpretation, see living instrument doctrine; treaty interpretation, evolutive
exemplary damages, see punitive damages
extraordinary rendition 179, 188189
extraterritorial application of ECHR 1213, 113, 133134, 161, 177
armed conflicts 12, 16, 9899, 101, 110, 119120, 214216; see also military operations
IHL application 1213, 28, 29, 108110, 110111, 128129
lex specialis principle 15, 30, 108, 109, 111
multinational operations 102103, 106107, 128129, 216220
non-international armed conflicts 109
cases
Al-Jedda v United Kingdom (27021/08) 128129, 187188, 215, 217218, 226227
Al-Saadoon and Mufdhi v United Kingdom (61498/08) 88, 91, 127128
Al-Skeini v United Kingdom (55721/07) 98, 105, 106, 129131, 215; see also Al-Skeini v United Kingdom (55721/07)
Assanidze v Georgia (71503/01) 122, 125, 146
Banković v Belgium (52207/99) 9899, 100101, 117, 119120, 121128, 192, 201, 215; see also Banković v Belgium (52207/99)
Catan v Moldova and Russia (43370/04) 15, 104, 123124, 129, 164, 190, 202205
Chiragov v Armenia (13216/05) 99, 124125, 162; see also Chiragov v Armenia (13216/05)
Cyprus v Turkey (6780/74) 115
Drozd and Janousek v France and Spain (12747/87) 192
Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09) 12, 5657, 100, 106, 109110; see also Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09)
Ilaşcu v Moldova and Russia (48787/99), see Ilaşcu v Moldova and Russia (48787/99)
Issa v Turkey (31821/96) 121122, 126
Jaloud v Netherlands (47708/08) 102, 105, 131132, 215, 217; see also Jaloud v Netherlands (47708/08)
Loizidou v Turkey (15318/89) 103104, 105, 115, 118119, 139, 193194; see also Loizidou v Turkey (15318/89)
Medvedyev v France (3394/03) 127
Öcalan v Turkey (46221/99) 74, 126, 128
Pad v Turkey (60167/00) 127
(p.311) R. (on the application of Al-Saadoon) v Secretary of State for Defence (QBD (Admin)) 101
Sargsyan v Azerbaijan (40167/06), see Sargsyan v Azerbaijan (40167/06)
Soering v United Kingdom (A/161) 6566, 7374, 77, 84, 116117, 175
X v Germany (1611/62) 114, 115
cause and effect test 116117
cyber activities and electronic surveillance 13, 102, 108, 110
diplomatic missions 115, 133
early jurisprudence 115117
effective control 104, 114, 115, 117120, 133, 162, 193196; see also effective control
decisive influence criterion 123, 124
distinguished from other concepts 158
international law compatibility 15, 132, 201, 207210
outside the legal space (espace juridique) 121122
over autonomous regions 122, 146
over separatist regions 122125, 144146, 194196, 202
state responsibility test 15, 104, 187188, 193196; see also state responsibility under ECHR
within the legal space (espace juridique) 120, 130
‘jurisdiction’ concept, distinguished from ‘attribution’ 104107, 114, 132133, 190197, 198199, 206207; see also jurisdiction/state responsibility relationship under ECHR
lex specialis principle 159, 201, 203205, 211
occupied states, see occupation of territories
peacekeeping operations, see peacekeeping operations
personal model (jurisdiction ratione personae) 98, 100102, 105, 114, 115116, 191
in buffer zones and at borders 126127
on high seas 127
at military checkpoints 131133; see also Jaloud v Netherlands (47708/08)
persons detained overseas, see detainees overseas, ECHR application to
police operations 126127
spatial model (jurisdiction ratione loci) 98, 99100, 105, 114, 191; see also extraterritorial application of ECHR, effective control
state responsibility, relationship with, see jurisdiction/state responsibility relationship under ECHR
extraterritorial application of IHRL 6, 16, 100, 119, 286
attempts to limit 112113
concurrent jurisdiction 155156; see also state responsibility, concurrent responsibility
ICJ jurisprudence 11, 13, 180, 196197, 215; see also ICJ (International Court of Justice)
UN Human Rights Committee jurisprudence on 215
fair trial right (ECHR Article 6), state immunity cases, see state immunity, ECtHR’s approach to, ECHR Article 6 application
Fink, Melanie 188
Foakes, Joanne 274276
Fogarty v United Kingdom (37112/97) 260, 265, 273
fragmentation of international law 12, 212
ECtHR’s contribution to 4, 5, 6, 200, 203
conflicts between ECHR and other legal sources 5258
Fragmentation of International Law (ILC report) 211
international jurisprudence, contribution to 5; see also international jurisprudence
judicial innovation, contribution to 6
substantive, methodological and institutional fragmentation 2
two-way street typology 23, 5, 6
value of 20
Gaja, Giorgio (ILC Special Rapporteur) 187
García Amador, F.V. (ILC Special Rapporteur) 235236
Garnett, Richard 278279
Gasparini v Italy and Belgium (10750/03) 184185, 225
general international law, see international law
Golder v United Kingdom (A/18) 65
Goodwin v United Kingdom (28957/95) 84
habeas corpus 112113
Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction 1980 57
Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09):
on the application of the Vienna Convention rules 8788, 109
dissenting judgment 62, 78
on extraterritorial application of ECHR 100, 106
(p.312) on need for consistency between ECHR and treaties 8990, 91
on use of IHL to interpret ECHR 12, 5657, 109110
on use of state practice to interpret ECHR 2830, 32, 35, 62, 7778
Higgins, Rosalyn 5, 252
high seas, extraterritorial jurisdiction over 127
Human Rights Committee (UN) 16, 29, 65, 119
evolutive treaty interpretation 68, 69
extraterritorial application of IHRL 215
human rights courts 3
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights 300, 303
customary international law, identification of 67; see also customary international law
responsibilities 20
Hyde, Edward (1st Earl of Clarendon) 112, 133
ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966) 68, 100, 119
ICJ (International Court of Justice) 3
cases
Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Croatia v Serbia) (ICJ) 197
Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of the Congo v Belgium) 252, 253, 258
Bosnian Genocide case 132, 142, 195, 196197, 253
Dispute Regarding Navigational Rights and Related Rights (Costa Rica v Nicaragua) 37
Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v Italy, Greece Intervening) 56, 253, 254, 263, 268, 290
Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v United States) 7, 11, 15, 34, 132, 195, 209210
North Sea Continental Shelf cases 35, 269270
ECtHR’s use of jurisprudence 89, 19, 35, 46; see also soft law, application by ECtHR
judicial dialogue between courts 19, 56, 252256
on extraterritorial application of IHRL 16, 119, 196197, 215; see also extraterritorial application of ECHR; extraterritorial application of IHRL
preliminary objection procedure 197
on state responsibility 11, 13, 180, 196197; see also state responsibility; state responsibility under ECHR
Statute of the International Court of Justice 1945 78
IHL (international humanitarian law):
application by ECtHR 1213, 28, 29, 108110, 110111, 128129
derogation from ECHR requirement 28, 2930, 62, 78, 88, 109, 111
Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09) 12, 5657, 109110; see also Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09)
lex specialis principle 15, 30, 108, 109, 111
IHRL, relationship with 1213
occupation of territories, see occupation of territories
peacekeeping operations, see peacekeeping operations
state immunity in IHL cases 290291; see also state immunity, ECtHR’s approach to
UN Security Council resolutions, see Security Council (UN), resolutions
IHRL (international human rights law):
conciliation with international law 4
extraterritorial application 6, 16, 100, 119
attempts to limit 112113
ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966) 68, 100, 119
IHL, relationship with 1213
IHRL responsibilities distinguished from concurrent ECHR duties 169170; see also concurrent jurisdiction of ECHR, concurrent ECHR duties
inter-American human rights system, see inter-American human rights system
interpreted using state practice 1011, 6162, 64, 68, 74, 79; see also state practice
(p.313) interpreted using the Vienna Convention rules 910, 79; see also Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969
norms, see norms
occupied states, positive obligations, see positive obligations, of occupied states
pro persona humana principle 285, 304
punitive damages, see punitive damages
state responsibility, see state responsibility
treaty interpretation 295299, 304; see also treaty interpretation
UN Human Rights Committee, see Human Rights Committee (UN)
Ilaşcu v Moldova and Russia (48787/99) 106, 202
on decisive influence test of extraterritorial jurisdiction 123, 124
extraterritorial jurisdiction and state responsibility confused 103104
on positive obligations of occupied states 14, 122123, 138, 139140, 141144, 145, 147148, 149150
ILC (International Law Commission) 3
Articles on State Responsibility for Internationally Wrongful Acts, see Articles on State Responsibility for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ILC)
Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations 15, 179, 185, 186, 198
customary international law
draft conclusions on the identification of 33, 34
role in identifying 266271
ECtHR’s interpretative methods, views on 30
evolutive treaty interpretation, views on 67
Fragmentation of International Law (ILC report) 211
positive obligations of occupied states, views on 137, 140141; see also positive obligations, of occupied states
punitive damages, views on 235236; see also punitive damages
state immunity, views on 32, 33, 258259, 266271; see also state immunity, ECtHR’s approach to
state practice, views on
treaty interpretation use 63, 6467, 7172, 73, 74, 80
treaty modification use 7677
state responsibility, views on 187, 216217, 219
Vienna Convention rules; see also Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969
comparative analysis of rules’ application 6566
criticism of 9
integration of international law, see convergence of international law
inter-American human rights system:
IACHR (Inter-American Court of Human Rights) 12
judicial dialogue with ECtHR 287, 292, 304
Myrna Mack Chang v Guatemala 240241
on positive obligations of occupied states 286; see also positive obligations, of occupied states
on punitive damages 288290
punitive damages 240241; see also punitive damages
as a regional system of IHRL 303
inter omnes obligations 3, 247
International Court of Justice, see ICJ (International Court of Justice)
international courts and tribunals:
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights 300, 303
human rights courts, see human rights courts
jurisprudence, see international jurisprudence
international human rights law, see IHRL (international human rights law)
international humanitarian law, see IHL (international humanitarian law)
international instruments, see treaties
international jurisprudence:
binding effects of 45, 4748
domestic law, relationship with 301303; see also domestic law
erga omnes effects of 4546, 166
fragmentation or convergence of international law, contribution to 5, 301
of international treaty bodies 45, 47
judicial dialogue 5, 19, 20
ECtHR and IACHR 287, 292, 304; see also inter-American human rights system
ECtHR and ICJ 19, 56, 252256; see also ICJ (International Court of Justice)
judicial function, views on 300301
soft and hard jurisprudence distinction 4548; see also soft law
International Labour Organization 26, 47, 53, 75
(p.314) international law:
‘anthropocentric turn’ in 4
constitutionalization of 4
customary international law, see customary international law
definition 1
norms, see norms
punitive damages 235237, 247; see also punitive damages
soft law, see soft law
state consent principle, see state consent
state responsibility, see state responsibility
treaties, see treaties
treaty interpretation, see treaty interpretation
International Law Association 1
international organizations:
Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations (ILC) 15, 179, 185, 186, 198
Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman and Degrading Punishment 5051
Council of Europe, see Council of Europe
International Labour Organization 26, 47, 53, 75
joint operations with states
peacekeeping, see peacekeeping operations
state responsibility for 15, 156, 164, 184188
treaty bodies’ jurisprudence 45, 47
treaty interpretation role 47, 50
UN, see UN (United Nations)
Human Rights Committee, see Human Rights Committee (UN)
Security Council, see Security Council (UN)
international treaty bodies, see international organizations
Iraq, occupation of, see occupation of territories, Iraq
Ireland v United Kingdom (A/25) 3
Israel, occupation of territories 119
Issa v Turkey (31821/96) 121122, 126
ius cogens obligations 3, 19, 44, 227, 290
Jacobs, Dov 236237
Jaloud v Netherlands (47708/08) 100, 111
on extraterritorial application of ECHR 102, 105, 131132, 215, 217
on jurisdiction/state responsibility relationship 12, 103, 104, 106107, 132, 191, 205208
on state responsibility under ECHR 15, 155, 165, 175, 177, 201
Jefferson, Thomas 61, 82
joint military operations 102103, 106107, 128129
Jones v United Kingdom (34356/06) 56, 252253, 256, 262, 265
Jørgensen, Nina H.B. 236
judicial activism in the ECtHR 11, 24, 25
judicial dialogue on international law, see international jurisprudence, judicial dialogue
jurisdiction of ECHR 1114, 160162
concurrent jurisdiction, see concurrent jurisdiction of ECHR
effective control
territorial jurisdiction 161162
extraterritorial application, see extraterritorial application of ECHR
‘jurisdiction’ concept, distinguished from ‘attribution’ 104107, 114, 132133, 190197, 198199, 206207; see also jurisdiction/state responsibility relationship under ECHR
models of 12
state responsibility, relationship with, see jurisdiction/state responsibility relationship under ECHR
jurisdiction/state responsibility relationship under ECHR 1112
cases
Catan v Moldova and Russia (43370/04) 15, 104, 123124, 129, 164, 190, 202205
Chiragov v Armenia (13216/05) 15, 194196; see also Chiragov v Armenia (13216/05)
(p.315) Jaloud v Netherlands (47708/08) 12, 103, 104, 106107, 132, 191, 205208; see also Jaloud v Netherlands (47708/08)
Sargsyan v Azerbaijan (40167/06) 125, 162, 164, 194, 196; see also Sargsyan v Azerbaijan (40167/06)
contribution to convergence of international law 201212; see also convergence of international law
contribution to fragmentation of international law 200, 203; see also fragmentation of international law
‘jurisdiction’ concept, distinguished from ‘attribution’ 103107, 114, 132134, 189197, 198199, 206207
Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v Italy, Greece Intervening) (ICJ) 56, 253, 254, 263, 268, 290
jurisprudence, international, see international jurisprudence
jus cogens obligations 3, 19, 44, 227, 290
jus naturale 19
just satisfaction 231, 234
Just Satisfaction Practice Directives (ECtHR) 230
Klausecker v Germany (415/07) 261
Kotov v Russia (54522/00) 15, 179, 182183, 184
Koufaki and Adedy v Greece (57665/12) 5455
Krieger, Heike 261
Lauterpacht, Hersch 246
lex specialis principle:
criticisms of 204
IHL, application by ECtHR 15, 30, 108, 109, 111
jurisdiction and state responsibility issues 159, 201, 203205, 211
Liseytseva and Maslov v Russia (39483/05 and 40527/10) 183
living instrument doctrine 13, 2324, 27, 28, 36, 134, 286287
cases
Demir and Baykara v Turkey (34503/97) 11, 52, 8586, 87; see also Demir and Baykara v Turkey (34503/97)
Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09) 8990, 91; see also Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09)
Tyrer v United Kingdom (A/26) 23, 25, 36, 63, 67, 70, 84
consistency with treaties 89, 11, 5658, 8486, 8990
evaluation of ECtHR’s approach 9293
rationale for 9192, 94
when inappropriate 93
consistency with Vienna Convention rules, see Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969, application by ECtHR
sources
soft law 5152, 92; see also soft law
state practice 6264, 6770, 79, 81; see also state practice, for ECHR interpretation
Loizidou v Turkey (15318/89):
on ECHR as a constitutional instrument 3
on extraterritorial application of ECHR 103104, 105, 115, 118119, 139, 193194
on use of international law to interpret ECHR 8485
on use of state practice to interpret ECHR 7273
Mahamdia v Algeria (C-154/11) (ECJ) 261, 274, 281
Mamatkulov v Turkey (46827/99) 4142, 73, 7879, 85
Marckx v Belgium (A/31) 51, 84
margin of appreciation, effect of European consensus norms on 3839; see also European consensus norms; state consent; state practice
Medvedyev v France (3394/03) 127
Milanovic, Marco 131, 190192, 206
Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v United States) (ICJ) 7, 11, 15, 34, 132, 195, 209210
military occupation, see occupation of territories
military operations:
armed conflicts, see armed conflicts
in buffer zones and borders 126127
military checkpoints 131133; see also Jaloud v Netherlands (47708/08)
multinational operations 102103, 106107, 128129, 216220
peacekeeping, see peacekeeping operations
(p.316) missing persons cases, state responsibility issues 287288; see also state responsibility under ECHR
Moeckli, Daniel 62
multinational military operations 102103, 106107, 128129, 216220
Myrna Mack Chang v Guatemala (IACHR) 240241
Nada v Switzerland (10593/08) 213, 221, 226, 227, 262263
Nagmetov v Russia (35589/08) 231
Nagorno-Karabakh, effective control cases:
Chiragov v Armenia (13216/05), see Chiragov v Armenia (13216/05)
Sargsyan v Azerbaijan (40167/06), see Sargsyan v Azerbaijan (40167/06)
National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers v United Kingdom (31045/10) 5253, 89
NATO 185, 187
equivalent protection of ECHR 225
natural justice 19
Neulinger and Shuruk v Switzerland (41615/07) 57
Nicaragua case (Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v United States)) (ICJ) 7, 11, 15, 34, 132, 195, 209210
Nollkaemper, André 188, 189, 236237
Nolte, Georg (ILC Special Rapporteur), see ILC (International Law Commission), state practice, views on
non-binding law, see soft law
norms:
customary international law, see customary international law
European consensus, see European consensus norms
inter omnes obligations 3, 247
jus cogens obligations 3, 19, 44, 227, 290
lex specialis principle, see lex specialis principle
opinio juris 67, 34, 44
pro persona humana principle 285, 304
soft law, see soft law
North Sea Continental Shelf cases (ICJ) 35, 269270
Öcalan v Turkey (46221/99) 74, 126, 128
occupation of territories:
Afghanistan 99, 100, 102, 112113, 130
buffer zones and borders 126127
effective control test (ECtHR), see extraterritoral application of ECHR, effective control
Iraq 102
Al-Jedda v United Kingdom (27021/08) 128129, 187188, 215, 217218, 226227
Al-Saadoon case, see Al-Saadoon case
Al-Skeini v United Kingdom (55721/07), see Al-Skeini v United Kingdom (55721/07)
Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09), see Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09)
Issa v Turkey (31821/96) 121122, 126
Jaloud v Netherlands (47708/08), see Jaloud v Netherlands (47708/08)
UN Security Council resolutions on 128129, 217
by Israel 119
Nagorno-Karabakh
Chiragov v Armenia (13216/05), see Chiragov v Armenia (13216/05)
Sargsyan v Azerbaijan (40167/06), see Sargsyan v Azerbaijan (40167/06)
occupied states, positive obligations, see positive obligations, of occupied states
peacekeeping, see peacekeeping operations
police operations 126127
by Turkey 124
Cyprus v Turkey (6780/74) 115
Cyprus v Turkey (8007/77) 138, 139
Cyprus v Turkey (25781/94) 87, 118119, 288
Loizidou v Turkey (15318/89), see Loizidou v Turkey (15318/89)
Vearncombe v United Kingdom and Germany (12816/87) 139
O’Keefe, Roger 274276
O’Keeffe v Ireland (35810/09) 181
Oleynikov v Russia (36703/04) 282283
opinio juris 44
state practice, relationship with 67, 34, 7879, 80; see also state practice
Pad v Turkey (60167/00) 127
peacekeeping operations 101, 175
attribution of 185188, 216
concurrent state responsibility for 16, 156
effective control 220; see also effective control
(p.317) immunities of peacekeepers 253256; see also state immunity, ECtHR’s approach to
UN Security Council resolutions for 219220
Pellet, Alain 4, 5, 247
Peters, Anne 263
police operations in foreign territory, ECHR application to 126127; see also extraterritorial application of ECHR
positive obligations 4, 167, 179, 286, 304
to allocate duties among states with concurrent jurisdiction 168169, 174, 175, 176; see also concurrent jurisdiction of ECHR
of ‘good government’ 113, 119120
to investigate rights abuses 100, 111
Jaloud v Netherlands (47708/08), see Jaloud v Netherlands (47708/08)
of occupied states 1314, 136138, 150151, 166, 286
Chiragov v Armenia (13216/05) 145, 149, 150; see also Chiragov v Armenia (13216/05)
effective control test replaced by 138, 142; see also effective control
Ilaşcu v Moldova and Russia (48787/99) 14, 122123, 138, 139140, 141144, 145, 147148, 149150; see also Ilaşcu v Moldova and Russia (48787/99)
ILC views on 137, 140141; see also ILC (International Law Commission)
nature of 149150
to regain effective control 161, 164, 166, 167, 168; see also effective control
Sargsyan v Azerbaijan (40167/06) 144145, 147148, 149, 150151; see also Sargsyan v Azerbaijan (40167/06)
Ukraine’s potential liabilities 148
respecting acts of individuals 181184
Costello-Roberts v United Kingdom (13134/87) 15, 179, 181, 184, 198
Storck v Germany (61603/00) 181182
public international law, see international law
punitive damages:
awarded by ECtHR 1718, 230235, 245247
awarded by IACHR 240241
Council of Europe’s views on 239
IACHR jurisprudence on 288290; see also inter-American human rights system
ILC views on 235236; see also ILC (International Law Commission)
social science rationale 241245
under EU law 238239
under international law 235237, 247
R. (on the application of Al-Saadoon) v Secretary of State for Defence (QBD (Admin)) 101
Rantsev v Cyprus and Russia (25965/04) 90
rendition, extraordinary 179, 188189
reparations 157, 172, 174, 175, 234, 235236, 288, 291; see also just satisfaction; punitive damages
right to fair trial (ECHR Article 6), state immunity cases, see state immunity, ECtHR’s approach to, ECHR Article 6 application
Rozakis, Christos 142
Russia:
effective control of territories 99100, 107, 110
Catan v Moldova and Russia (43370/04) 15, 104, 123124, 129, 164, 190, 202205
Ilaşcu v Moldova and Russia (48787/99), see Ilaşcu v Moldova and Russia (48787/99)
power of Constitutional Court to overturn ECtHR rulings 48
Ukraine conflict 12, 100, 107, 108, 110, 148
Ryngaert, Cedric 184
Sabeh El Leil v France (34869/05) 260, 274, 277
sanctions, UN Security Council resolutions imposing 17, 220228
Sargsyan v Azerbaijan (40167/06):
on jurisdiction/state responsibility relationship 125, 162, 164, 194, 196
on positive obligations of occupied states 144145, 147148, 149, 150151
Security Council (UN) 14
resolutions
imposing economic sanctions 16, 17, 220228
on military operations 16, 192, 216220
on occupation of Iraq 128129, 217
peacekeeping operations 219220; see also peacekeeping operations
Security Council (UN) resolutions, execution by ECHR states 1617, 213214, 229
economic sanctions 17, 220222, 262263
EU Member States 222224
non-EU Member States 224228
military operations 16, 192, 214220
peacekeeping operations 219220; see also peacekeeping operations
separatist regions, extraterritorial application of ECHR to 122125, 144146, 194196, 202; see also extraterritorial application of ECHR
(p.318) service personnel, application of ECHR to 55
SH v Austria (57813/00) 72
shared jurisdiction, ECHR states, see concurrent jurisdiction of ECHR
Shelton, Dinah 234, 240241
Soering v United Kingdom (A/161) 6566, 7374, 77, 84, 116117, 175
soft law:
application by ECtHR 89, 1920, 28
conflicts with ECHR 5255
contexts 4849
influence on soft law status 48, 49
role in interpreting ECHR as living instrument 5152, 92; see also living instrument doctrine
used to fill gaps in ECHR 5051
distinguished from hard law 78, 4245
conflicts with ECHR, treatment of 5258
non-ratified treaties as 43
soft and hard jurisprudence 4548
legitimacy concerns 43
see also state consent
sources of law:
conflicts with ECHR 5258
customary international law, see customary international law
Demir and Baykara v Turkey (34503/97), see Demir and Baykara v Turkey (34503/97)
domestic law 11, 2223, 27, 31, 3738, 55, 69, 86; see also state practice
European consensus norms, see European consensus norms
general international law, see international law
soft law, see soft law
state practice, see state practice
Spielmann, Dean 252, 285
state consent:
distinguishing hard law from soft law 4344; see also soft law
to ECHR
‘persistent objector’ states 39, 44, 270271
whether undermined by European consensus norms 24, 3839
whether undermined by use of state practice to interpret ECHR 7981; see also state practice, for ECHR interpretation
versus integrity of IHRL systems 293294, 304
role in creation of international law 24, 42, 61
treaty modification, requirement for 80
state immunity, ECtHR’s approach to 1819, 251252
cases
Al-Adsani v United Kingdom (35763/97) 56, 256, 265
Beer and Regan v Germany (28934/95) 254255, 263
Cudak v Lithuania (15869/02) 259, 260, 266271, 276, 279; see also Cudak v Lithuania (15869/02)
Fogarty v United Kingdom (37112/97) 260, 265, 273
Jones v United Kingdom (34356/06) 56, 252253, 256, 262, 265
Klausecker v Germany (415/07) 261
Oleynikov v Russia (36703/04) 282283
Sabeh El Leil v France (34869/05) 260, 274, 277
Stichting Mothers of Srebrenica v Netherlands (65542/12) 219, 253255, 290
Waite and Kennedy v Germany (26083/94) 184, 254255, 263
ECHR Article 6 application 18, 20, 3235, 56, 251252, 256257, 258, 261
access to alternative form of redress 262263
proportionality assessment 262
evolution 261263
grave human rights and IHL violations 290291
immunity of international organizations 253256, 260261, 262
use of customary international law 18, 3233, 258
Council of Europe instruments, see Council of Europe, state immunity
ILC’s work 32, 33, 258259, 266271; see also ILC (International Law Commission)
use of ICJ jurisprudence 252256
Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of the Congo v Belgium) 252, 253, 258
Bosnian Genocide case 132, 142, 195, 196197, 253
Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v Italy, Greece Intervening) 56, 253, 254, 263, 268, 290
use of state practice 256258, 277278
Benkharbouche v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (UKSC) 257258, 260, 274, 279280
(p.319) state practice:
for ECHR interpretation 1011, 8182; see also European consensus norms
contextual interpretations 10, 7174
domestic law 11, 2223, 27, 31, 3738, 55, 69, 86
Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09) 2830, 32, 35, 62, 7778; see also Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09)
living instrument interpretations 6264, 6770, 79, 81; see also living instrument doctrine
Loizidou v Turkey (15318/89) 7273; see also Loizidou v Turkey (15318/89)
normative value, significance of 1011, 7980, 8182
as source of European consensus norms 10, 2832, 35, 36, 7475; see also European consensus norms
state immunity 256258, 277278; see also state immunity, ECtHR’s approach to
states’ adoption of treaties 92
teleological interpretations 10, 6970
textual interpretations 10, 7071
whether undermining state consent 7981
for IHRL interpretation 1011, 6162, 64, 68, 75, 79
opinio juris, relationship with 67, 34, 7879, 80
for treaty interpretation generally 83
ILC’s views on 63, 6467, 7172, 73, 74, 80
Vienna Convention rules on 7172, 73, 74, 79; see also Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969
for treaty modification 7579, 80
ECtHR’s views on 7779, 88
ILC’s views on 7677
state responsibility 6, 11
Articles on State Responsibility for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ILC), see Articles on State Responsibility for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ILC)
Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations (ILC) 15, 179, 185, 186, 198
attribution
acts of international organizations 15, 156, 185
‘attribution’ concept, distinguished from ‘jurisdiction’ 104107, 114, 132133, 190197, 198199, 206207; see also jurisdiction/state responsibility relationship under ECHR
concurrent responsibility 171173
concurrent responsibility 14, 158160
attribution 171173
definition 158, 170
joint and several responsibility principle 173
occupation of territories 156; see also occupation of territories
peacekeeping 16, 156; see also peacekeeping operations
effective control 11, 13, 15, 104, 132, 187, 202; see also effective control
ICJ jurisprudence 11, 13, 180, 196197; see also ICJ (International Court of Justice)
ILC views on 187, 216217, 219; see also ILC (International Law Commission)
state responsibility under ECHR 1112, 1418
attribution
‘acquiescence or connivance’ rule 15, 171, 179, 189, 198
acts of individuals 181184
acts of international organizations 164, 184188
acts of third countries 188189
application of ILC Articles on State Responsibility for Internationally Wrongful Acts 179184, 185186, 188189, 197, 198
‘attribution’ concept, distinguished from ‘jurisdiction’ 104107, 114, 132133, 190197, 198199, 206207; see also jurisdiction/state responsibility relationship under ECHR
concurrent responsibility 171173
peacekeeping operations 185188, 216; see also peacekeeping operations
procedural/substantive distinction 180
cases
Al-Jedda v United Kingdom (27021/08) 128129, 187188, 215, 217218, 226227
Aslakhanova v Russia (2944/06, 8300/07, 50184/07, 332/08 and 42509/10) 287
Azemi v Serbia (11209/09) 147
Banković v Belgium (52207/99), see Banković v Belgium (52207/99)
Bosphorus Hava Yollari Turizm ve Ticaret Anonim Şirketi v Ireland (45036/98) 15, 17, 179, 184, 221, 222223, 225
Catan v Moldova and Russia (43370/04) 15, 104, 123124, 129, 164, 190, 202205
(p.320) Chiragov v Armenia (13216/05), see Chiragov v Armenia (13216/05)
Costello-Roberts v United Kingdom (13134/87) 15, 179, 181, 184, 198
Drozd and Janousek v France and Spain (12747/87) 192
El-Masri v Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (39630/09) 15, 188189, 198
Gasparini v Italy and Belgium (10750/03) 184185, 225
Ilaşcu v Moldova and Russia (48787/99), see Ilaşcu v Moldova and Russia (48787/99)
Jaloud v Netherlands (47708/08) 15, 165, 175, 177, 201; see also Jaloud v Netherlands (47708/08)
Kotov v Russia (54522/00) 15, 179, 182183, 184
Liseytseva and Maslov v Russia (39483/05 and 40527/10) 183
Loizidou v Turkey (15318/89), see Loizidou v Turkey (15318/89)
Sargsyan v Azerbaijan (40167/06), see Sargsyan v Azerbaijan (40167/06)
Varnava v Turkey (16064/90) 287
Vearncombe v United Kingdom and Germany (12816/87) 139
Waite and Kennedy v Germany (26083/94) 184, 254255, 263
concurrent responsibility 157159, 172173, 175177, 217; see also state responsibility, concurrent responsibility
attribution 171173
barriers to recognition 174175
definition 158, 170
distinguished from concurrent jurisdiction 157158; see also concurrent jurisdiction of ECHR
joint and several responsibility principle 173174
reparations 157, 172, 174, 175
enforced disappearance cases 287288
extraterritorial application of ECHR, relationship with, see jurisdiction/state responsibility relationship under ECHR
lex specialis principle 159, 201, 203205, 211
three stage test 190
trends of ECtHR jurisprudence 179
UN Security Council resolutions, execution of, see Security Council (UN) resolutions, execution by ECHR states
Statute of the International Court of Justice 1945 78
Stichting Mothers of Srebrenica v Netherlands (65542/12) 219, 253255, 290
Storck v Germany (61603/00) 181182
subsequent practice, see state practice
surveillance, ECHR application to 13, 102, 108, 110
Talmon, Stefan 268
Tepe v Turkey (27244/95) 180
third country acts, attribution of responsibility to ECHR states 188189; see also state responsibility under ECHR
treaties:
ECHR interpretation consistent with, see living instrument doctrine, consistency with treaties
ECHR’s special character as a treaty 34, 7, 11, 1920, 27, 3940
interpretation, see treaty interpretation
modification using state practice, see state practice, for treaty modification
non-ratified
as customary international law 3334; see also customary international law
as soft law 43; see also soft law
use for ECHR interpretation 27, 41, 86
treaty interpretation 294295
concentric circles model 1920
customary international law use, see customary international law
evolutive 10, 24, 37, 61, 83, 298, 304
ILC’s views on 67; see also ILC (International Law Commission)
state practice use, see state practice
by UN Human Rights Committee 68, 69
Vienna Convention rules supporting 67, 69, 83
IHRL treaties 295299, 304
international organizations’ role 47, 50
opinio juris use, see opinio juris
travaux préparatoires use 275
treaty modification using state practice, see state practice, for treaty modification
ut res magis valeat quam pereat doctrine 295
Turkey’s occupation of Northern Cyprus, see occupation of territories, by Turkey
Tyrer v United Kingdom (A/26) 23, 25, 36, 63, 67, 70, 84
(p.321) Ukraine conflict 12, 100, 107, 108, 110, 148
UN (United Nations):
Convention on Diplomatic Relations 1961 274
Human Rights Committee, see Human Rights Committee (UN)
ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966) 68, 100, 119
peacekeeping operations, see peacekeeping operations
Security Council, see Security Council (UN)
UN Charter
Article 103 128, 217218, 225226, 227228, 229
equivalent protection of ECHR 225227, 255
van Alebeek, Rosanne 283284
Varnava v Turkey (16064/90) 287
Vearncombe v United Kingdom and Germany (12816/87) 139
Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations 1961 274
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969 1, 6, 19
application by ECtHR 7, 11, 6466, 71, 73, 81, 8687, 93
Article 31(1) (evolutive intention) 9, 11, 79, 80, 83, 91, 9293, 295, 298
Article 31(3)(b) (subsequent state practice) 9, 28, 30, 72, 77, 78, 83, 8788, 91
Article 31(3)(c) (systemic interpretation) 26, 28, 35, 83, 85, 8891
compared with WTO Appellate Body 6566, 7172
European consensus norms, relationship with 25, 26, 2730, 31, 32, 35, 39; see also European consensus norms
Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09) 8788, 109; see also Hassan v United Kingdom (29750/09)
evolutive treaty interpretation, rules supporting 67, 69, 83; see also treaty interpretation, evolutive
IHRL, application to 910, 79
state practice, rules on use of 7172, 73, 74, 79; see also state practice
Wagner, Gerhard 238
Waite and Kennedy v Germany (26083/94) 184, 254255, 263
warfare, see armed conflicts
White, Nigel 62
Whiteman, Marjorie M. 235
Wittich, Stephan 236
Wood, Michael 33, 34
WTO (World Trade Organization), Appellate Body’s application of the Vienna Convention rules 6566, 7172
X v Germany (1611/62) 114, 115
X v Latvia (27853/09) 57 (p.322) (p.323) (p.324) (p.325) (p.326)