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Principles of Materials Characterization and Metrology$
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Kannan M. Krishnan

Print publication date: 2021

Print ISBN-13: 9780198830252

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: July 2021

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198830252.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 22 January 2022

Diffraction of Electrons and Neutrons

Diffraction of Electrons and Neutrons

(p.481) 8 Diffraction of Electrons and Neutrons
Principles of Materials Characterization and Metrology

Kannan M. Krishnan

Oxford University Press

Electron scattering, significantly stronger than that for X-rays, is sensitive to surfaces and small volumes of materials. Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) provides information on surface reconstruction and the arrangement of adsorbed atoms. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) probes surface crystallography, and monitors, in situ, mechanisms of thin film growth. Transmission electron diffraction reveals a planar cross-section of the reciprocal lattice, where intensities are products of the structure and lattice amplitude factors determined by the overall shape of the specimen. The amplitude of any diffracted beam at the exit surface oscillates with thickness (fringes) and the excitation error (bend contours). Selected area diffraction produce spot or ring patterns, where low-index zone-axis orientations reflect the symmetry of the crystal, and double-diffraction shows positive intensities even for reflections forbidden by extinction rules. Kikuchi lines appear as pairs of dark and bright lines, and help in tilting the specimen. A focused probe produces convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED), useful for symmetry analysis at nanoscale resolution. Neutrons interact with the nucleus and the magnetic moment of the atom via the spin of the neutron; the latter finds particular use in studies of magnetic order. The atomic scattering factor for neutrons shows negligible angular dependence.

Keywords:   Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), Surface crystallography and reconstruction, Rheed oscillations in thin film growth, Lattice amplitude factors, Column approximation, Kinematic and dynamical scattering, Selected area diffraction, Convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED), Neutron scattering

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