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Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits$
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Bruce Walsh and Michael Lynch

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780198830870

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198830870.001.0001

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Associative Effects: Competition, Social Interactions, Group and Kin Selection

Associative Effects: Competition, Social Interactions, Group and Kin Selection

(p.769) 22 Associative Effects: Competition, Social Interactions, Group and Kin Selection
Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits

Bruce Walsh

Michael Lynch

Oxford University Press

The phenotypes of those individuals with which an focal individual interacts often influences the trait value in the focal individual. Maternal effects is a classic example of this phenomena, as is fitness. If these traits are heritable, then the selection response depends on both the change in the direct effects influencing a target trait and the associative effects contributed by interacting individuals. In such a setting, the breeder's equation no longer holds, as the problem is now a multiple trait one. This chapter examines the theory of response under models with both direct and associative effects, which can lead to a reversed response (a trait selected to increase instead decreases). The evolution of behavioral traits, including the evolution of altruism, is best handled using this approach. Further, kin and group selection follow as special cases of the gerenal model under multilevel selection. This chapter also examines how mixed models can be used estimate model parameters.

Keywords:   altruistic traits, associative effects, Bijma's theorem, BLUP, direct effects, Fisher's fundamental theorem, Hamilton's rule, inclusive fitness, indirect genetic effects, kin selection, group selection, multilevel selection, total breeding value

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