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Evolutionary GeneticsConcepts, Analysis, and Practice$
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Glenn-Peter Sætre and Mark Ravinet

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198830917

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: July 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198830917.001.0001

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Changes in allele and genotype frequency

Changes in allele and genotype frequency

(p.49) Chapter 3 Changes in allele and genotype frequency
Evolutionary Genetics

Glenn-Peter Sætre

Mark Ravinet

Oxford University Press

Evolution is the change in heritable traits of populations over successive generations. At the molecular level this translates into changes in their genetic composition. A general theoretical investigation of how different demographic and evolutionary processes affect genetic variation within and between populations provides us with tools to reconstruct evolutionary history. This is the fundamental purpose of population genetics. This chapter investigates the relationship between allele and genotype frequencies in a hypothetical population that is not subjected to any evolutionary forces—i.e. the Hardy–Weinberg model. Then, one by one, demographic and evolutionary factors such as non-random mating, genetic drift, selection, mutation, and gene flow are introduced to investigate in what ways they affect allele and/or genotype frequencies. The chapter further introduces F-statistics and goodness of fit tests to investigate statistical deviations from expectations.

Keywords:   Hardy–Weinberg, inbreeding, assortative mating, genetic drift, gene flow, FIS, FST, effective population size, population structure

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