Most phenotypic traits are affected by a multitude of genes, which may interact in complex ways. This means that the single locus model explored in chapters 3 and 4 is not always able to capture the full complexity of genetic evolution. In many cases, multiple genes are involved and so this chapter formalizes the analysis of multilocus evolution. Concepts such as linkage disequilibrium and epistasis are introduced, both of which are necessary to properly understand multilocus evolution. The currently highly active field emerging as a result of a crossover between quantitative genetics and genomics is further explored, including methods such as quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and genome wide association study (GWAS) that allow phenotypic variation to be associated with likely causative genes and that have made important advances in our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of disease.
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