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Evolutionary GeneticsConcepts, Analysis, and Practice$
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Glenn-Peter Sætre and Mark Ravinet

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198830917

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: July 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198830917.001.0001

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Genetics and genomics of speciation

Genetics and genomics of speciation

(p.173) Chapter 8 Genetics and genomics of speciation
Evolutionary Genetics

Glenn-Peter Sætre

Mark Ravinet

Oxford University Press

The diversity of life on Earth is something that has long fascinated biologists. When we inspect all this variation, two striking patterns emerge. First, organisms appear as if they have almost been “designed” to live the way they do. However, as explained in chapters 4 and 5, the theory of natural selection accounts for this apparent design. The second striking pattern is that variation appears to be non-randomly distributed. That is, it is clustered into groups of individuals that resemble each other and that are recognizably different from other such clusters; species, in other words. To what extent are species biologically meaningful entities in evolution? How do new species originate? What genetic changes occur when one species diverges into two? How is genomic data changing our understanding of speciation? These are among the many questions this chapter addresses. The chapter starts by discussing what constitutes a species.

Keywords:   species concepts, reproductive isolation, barriers, hybrid zones, non-allopatric speciation, divergence hitchhiking, reinforcement, coupling, hybrid speciation, speciation genomics

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