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Knowing and Seeing – Groundwork for a new empiricism - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Knowing and Seeing: Groundwork for a new empiricism

Michael Ayers


Knowing and Seeing explores the insight behind the distinction of kind between knowledge and belief drawn by most philosophers from Plato to Locke. Judging that S is P (with or without good reason) is distinguished from seeing that S is P (when reasons are unnecessary), having evidence that S is P from its being immediately evident that S is P. After a historical account of the rise and fall of the distinction, a detailed, careful phenomenological analysis of perceptual experience, consonant with recent empirical psychology, suggests that a distinction is indeed needed at the traditional place ... More

Keywords: knowledge and belief, phenomenology of perception, perceptual knowledge, John McDowell, Timothy Williamson, identity and individuation, intentional content, scepticism, epistemological externalism, defeasibility

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2019 Print ISBN-13: 9780198833567
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2019 DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198833567.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Michael Ayers, author
Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, University of Oxford

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