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Urban Evolutionary Biology$
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Marta Szulkin, Jason Munshi-South, and Anne Charmantier

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9780198836841

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198836841.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 27 October 2021

Evolutionary Consequences of the Urban Heat Island

Evolutionary Consequences of the Urban Heat Island

Chapter:
(p.91) Chapter 6 Evolutionary Consequences of the Urban Heat Island
Source:
Urban Evolutionary Biology
Author(s):

Sarah E. Diamond

Ryan A. Martin

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198836841.003.0006

As humans continue to modify the climatic conditions organisms encounter, downstream effects on the phenotypes of organisms are likely to arise. In particular, the worldwide proliferation of human settlements rapidly generates pockets of localized warming across the landscape. These urban heat island effects are frequently intense, especially for moderate to larger sized cities, where urban centres can be several degrees Celsius warmer compared with nearby non-urban areas. Although organisms likely ameliorate the effects of warming through phenotypic plasticity, the evolution of thermally sensitive traits may be an important yet underappreciated means of survival. Recent work suggests the potential for contemporary evolutionary change in association with urban heat islands across a diverse suite of traits from morphology to physiological tolerance, growth rate, and metabolism. This chapter reviews and synthesizes this work. It first develops a comprehensive set of predictions for adaptive evolutionary changes in morphology, physiology, and life-history traits driven by urban heat islands. It then evaluates these predictions with regard to the burgeoning literature on urban evolution of thermally sensitive traits.

Keywords:   Urban thermal adaptation, physiology, life history, morphology, fitness, evolution, plasticity, common garden experiment, reciprocal transplant, meta-analysis

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