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Contested World OrdersRising Powers, Non-Governmental Organizations, and the Politics of Authority Beyond the Nation-State$
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Matthew D. Stephen and Michael Zürn

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198843047

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198843047.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 23 September 2021



Contested World Orders—Continuity or Change?

(p.368) 11 Conclusion
Contested World Orders

Michael Zürn

Klaus Dieter Wolf

Matthew D. Stephen

Oxford University Press

The concluding chapter draws together the findings and compares them across chapters, issue areas, and actors. Three findings are most noteworthy. First, the demands of both rising powers and NGOs can be characterized as in some cases status quo oriented and in others reformist. There are only a few signs of revisionism. Second, the challengers do not constitute a coherent group in international politics. There are very few indications of a systemic challenge with similar positions and coalitions in all cases, as power transition theory suggests. Third, the demands for change are issue-area specific and are mostly directed against either unequal representation in the decision-making bodies or strong forms of neo-liberal or human rights-based intrusiveness.

Keywords:   power shift, rising powers, NGOs, liberal order, cleavage, institutionalized inequality, neo-liberalism, revisionism

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