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Mutation, Randomness, and Evolution$
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Arlin Stoltzfus

Print publication date: 2021

Print ISBN-13: 9780198844457

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2021

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198844457.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 30 July 2021

The revolt of the clay

The revolt of the clay

(p.165) Chapter 9 The revolt of the clay
Mutation, Randomness, and Evolution

Arlin Stoltzfus

Oxford University Press

Chapter 9 presents an empirical case for the importance of mutational biases, based on studies of adaptation traced to the molecular level. Where Chapter 8 identified a variational cause of bias that does not depend on neutral evolution, absolute constraints, or high mutation rates, this chapter focuses on how quantitative biases in ordinary nucleotide mutations influence adaptive evolution. It uses published studies of parallel adaptation in nature and in the laboratory. The natural studies include both (1) cases of recent local adaptation, e.g., evolution of resistance to insecticides and herbicides, and (2) cases of fixed changes, e.g., altitude adaptation via changes in hemoglobins, spectral tuning of photoreceptors used in color vision, and so on. The results indicate that the kinds of changes that happen most often in adaptation are the kinds favored by simple biases in mutation, e.g., transition-transversion bias.

Keywords:   mutation bias, parallel adaptation, transition-transversion bias, CpG bias, mutation spectrum

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