This chapter focuses on the operations and maintenance of new product and service offerings once they have been deployed; in particular, it addresses dealing with system failures. Addressing system failures is an important aspect of operating and maintaining complex systems, particularly when laced with behavioral and social phenomena. Despite advances in technology and automation, humans will inevitably have roles in addressing failures when detection, diagnosis, and compensation cannot be automated. Human problem-solving involves a mix of pattern recognition and structural sleuthing based on mental models for taskwork and teamwork. Training and aiding can enhance human problem-solving performance by fostering problem-solving strategies and tactics, as well as team coordination.
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