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Enemies in the Empire – Civilian Internment in the British Empire during the First World War - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Enemies in the Empire: Civilian Internment in the British Empire during the First World War

Stefan Manz and Panikos Panayi


During the First World War, Britain was the epicentre of global mass internment and deportation operations. Germans, Austro-Hungarians, Turks, and Bulgarians who had settled in Britain and its overseas territories were deemed to be a potential danger to the realm through their ties with the Central Powers and classified as ‘enemy aliens’. A complex set of wartime legislation imposed limitations on their freedom of movement, expression, and property possession. Approximately 50,000 men and some women experienced the most drastic step of enemy alien control, namely internment behind barbed wire, ... More

Keywords: internment, First World War, German diaspora, minorities, British Empire, transportation, persecution

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2020 Print ISBN-13: 9780198850151
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2020 DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198850151.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Stefan Manz, author
Professor of German and Global History, Aston University

Panikos Panayi, author
Professor of European History, De Montfort University