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Trapped in the Middle? – Developmental Challenges for Middle-Income Countries - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Trapped in the Middle?: Developmental Challenges for Middle-Income Countries

José Antonio Alonso and José Antonio Ocampo


There is growing evidence that overcoming the low-income threshold and reaching middle-income status is not sufficient for countries to converge toward high-income levels. Few middle-income countries have successfully completed that transit in recent decades, with the majority remaining in the middle-income group, and so facing what has come to be called"the middle-income trap". It is therefore essential to explore whether middle-income traps really exist and, if they do, how these pitfalls are manifested, what their causes are, what economic policy measures are required to escape from them, a ... More

Keywords: middle-income country, middle-income trap, economic growth, economic convergence, technological innovation, institutional change, financial flows, development cooperation, international trade, global economic governance

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2020 Print ISBN-13: 9780198852773
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020 DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198852773.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

José Antonio Alonso, editor
Professor of Applied Economics, Universidad Complutense de Madrid

José Antonio Ocampo, editor
Professor of Professional Practice in International and Public Affairs, Columbia University

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