Chapter 12 is the story of AlphaGo – the first computer program to defeat a top human player at the board game Go. On March 19, 2016, grandmaster Lee Sedol took on AlphaGo for a US$1 million prize in a best of five match. Experts expected that it would be easy money for Sedol. To most observers surprise, AlphaGo swept the first three games to win the match. AlphaGo was based on deep artificial neural networks (ANNs). The networks were trained with 30 million example moves followed 1.2 million games played against itself. AlphaGo was the creation of a London based company named Deep Mind Technologies. Founded in 2010 and acquired by Google 2014, DeepMind’s made a succession of high profile breakthroughs in artificial intelligence. Recently, their AlphaZero ANN displayed signs of general-purpose intelligence. It learned to play Chess, Shogi, and Go to world champion level in a few days.
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