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Identity and Diversity on the International Bench – Who is the Judge? - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Identity and Diversity on the International Bench: Who is the Judge?

Freya Baetens


International courts and tribunals hold the power to decide on questions involving sovereignty over territory, grave human rights violations, international crimes, or millions of euros’ worth of economic interests. Judges and arbitrators are the ‘faces’ and arguably the drivers of international adjudication—yet certain groups tend to be overrepresented on international benches, while others remain underrepresented.

Keywords: judges, arbitrators, international adjudication, international benches, identity, diversity, international courts, international tribunals, judicial process, international law, international dispute settlement

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2020 Print ISBN-13: 9780198870753
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2021 DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198870753.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Freya Baetens, editor
Professor of Public International Law, University of Oslo

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Part I Towards the International Bench

2 The Smurfette Principle

Liesbeth Lijnzaad

6 The Party-Appointment Process

Catherine Drummond*

10 Fifty Years of Women at the European Court of Human Rights

Helen Keller, Corina Heri, and Myriam Christ*

Part II On the International Bench

11 The Identity Conundrum

Catharine Titi

15 A Question of Impartiality

Szilárd Gáspár-Szilágyi and Laura Létourneau-Tremblay*

Part III Beyond the International Bench

25 Peru’s ‘Intercultural Law’ Proposal

Clara María López Rodríguez


Janet M Nosworthy

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