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Anatomy for Dental Students$
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Martin E. Atkinson

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199234462

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199234462.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use.date: 27 May 2022

The respiratory system

The respiratory system

Chapter:
(p.38) 5 The respiratory system
Source:
Anatomy for Dental Students
Author(s):

Martin E. Atkinson

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780199234462.003.0011

Oxygen derived from the air is essential for providing energy to drive the metabolic processes in cells and tissues. Air is drawn into and expelled from the body through the respiratory system by the process of ventilation. Within the respiratory system, gaseous exchange takes place between air and blood in the lungs. This is respiration in its true sense; oxygen enters the blood and carbon dioxide leaves it. The activities of the respiratory system must be regulated to ensure adequate oxygen supplies and clearance of carbon dioxide to meet the functional demands of the body. The respiratory and cardiovascular systems work in concert to maintain homeostasis and share several control mechanisms. The respiratory system also provides the driving force for production of speech and modifying sounds during speech. Anatomically, the respiratory system consists of a series of air passages that terminate in the lungs where gaseous exchange takes place across the thin walls of individual alveoli within them. The air passages are supported by bone or cartilage to prevent them from collapsing when air pressure is reduced. A schematic diagram of the respiratory tract is shown in Figure 5.1. In succession, the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchial tree constitute the conducting portion of air passages and the lung alveoli form the respiratory portion where gaseous exchange takes place. Clinically, the air passages as far as the larynx are known as the upper respiratory tract (URT) and the passages below the larynx and the lungs are the lower respiratory tract (LRT). Air is drawn into the body through the nose. The nose is more than a simple air passage; it has important functions in cleaning, warming, and moistening air. Air is filtered by hairs at the entrance to the nose, warmed by heat exchange with the abundant blood vessels in the mucosa of the nasal cavities, and humidified by fluid evaporating from mucus secreted by the lining mucosa. Figure 5.2A shows how bone in the lateral walls of the nasal cavities is folded to increase the surface area available and thus increase their efficiency of heating and humidification. The mucosa lining the respiratory portion has an outer covering known as respiratory epithelium although its full description, pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells, is more informative.

Keywords:   alveoli, bronchioles, cilia, expiration, goblet cells, hilus, inspiration, larynx, macrophages, oropharynx

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