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Controversies in Science and TechnologyFrom Sustainability to Surveillance$
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Daniel Lee Kleinman, Karen A. Cloud-Hansen, and Jo Handelsman

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780199383771

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199383771.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 January 2022

Food Sovereignty, Food Security: Markets and Dispossession

Food Sovereignty, Food Security: Markets and Dispossession

(p.124) Chapter 9 Food Sovereignty, Food Security: Markets and Dispossession
Controversies in Science and Technology

Annette Aurélie Desmarais

Jim Handy

Oxford University Press

The ongoing global food crisis combined with the growing environmental crisis manifested in climate change provides a special political moment for the international community to define what policies might best eradicate poverty and ensure the full realization of the right to food. There are essentially two very different models of agriculture being proposed, one associated with the idea of “food security” and the other associated with the idea of “food sovereignty.” Both models, if not the terms used to label them, have a long history and reflect opposing views of economic and social development. Food security can be represented by the 2008 High Level Task Force’s Comprehensive Framework for Action and more recently the World Economic Forum’s New Vision for Agriculture Initiative report titled “Achieving the New Vision for Agriculture: New Models for Action” released in January 2013. Both promote more investment in agriculture and highlight the need to increase global production and foster greater market integration. On the other hand, La Via Campesina—now considered to be the world’s most significant transnational agrarian movement—and a growing number of civil society organizations advocate new food systems based on food sovereignty. They claim that the official food secu­rity responses are essentially “more of the same”—that is, they emphasize increasing production and productivity, expanding liberalized trade, and pursuing another Green Revolution through the greater use of genetically modified organisms in agricultural production. In other words, the official solutions being proposed are further modernization and industrialization of agriculture aimed at producing more food. However, as Murphy and Paasch (2009) point out, the official solutions on offer focus on increasing production “yet the FAO itself has said that lack of food is not the reason for the food crisis” (p. 6). The tragedy is that hunger persists in a world that produces sufficient food for every human being on the planet (United Nations [UN] Human Rights Council 2011). Surely not starving is a simple justice. Food sovereignty tackles the issue of justice head on.

Keywords:   food system, hunger, import, labor, modernization, neoliberalism, privacy, soil, trade, wealth

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