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The Aqueous Chemistry of Oxides$
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Bruce C. Bunker and William H. Casey

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780199384259

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199384259.001.0001

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Nucleation and Growth of Solid Oxide and Hydroxide Phases

Nucleation and Growth of Solid Oxide and Hydroxide Phases

Chapter:
(p.167) 7 Nucleation and Growth of Solid Oxide and Hydroxide Phases
Source:
The Aqueous Chemistry of Oxides
Author(s):

Bruce C. Bunker

William H. Casey

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780199384259.003.0013

In this chapter, we consider what happens when solids begin to form from solution. To grow solids from solution, solution conditions are changed from a condition in which all species are completely soluble to a condition in which they are insoluble. In the context of hydrolysis diagrams, the solution composition moves in pH and total dissolved metal concentration from a regime below a solubility or saturation limit (given by the bold solid line in Figs. 5.2 and 5.3) to a regime above this limit where the solution is supersaturated. Supersaturated solutions are inherently unstable and have the potential to generate hydroxide or oxide solids. Sometimes these solutions can be maintained in a metastable state in which precipitation does not occur immediately. However, Mother Nature eventually reduces the energy of the solution by forming a stable mixture of solids plus solution species. As solids form, soluble complexes are removed from solution until concentrations drop back to the solubility limit. The precipitation of a solid from an aqueous solution is a surprisingly complex process, involving nucleation and growth phenomena that occur at nanometer-length scales. Nucleation involves reactions between oligomers to form new clusters or particles that are sufficiently large that they do not redissolve spontaneously via the reversible reactions denoted in hydrolysis diagrams. Homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation processes represent events that occur within the bulk solution or at the interface of another phase, respectively. Growth involves the addition of monomers to clusters in solution or oligomers to existing particles or surfaces. The combination of nucleation and growth phenomena can lead to oxides exhibiting a bewildering range of sizes, shapes, and crystal structures. How do metal complexes decide whether to form a new particle or add to an existing particle? What determines the size, shape, and crystal structure of evolving particles? Do the particles aggregate with one another in an organized fashion? Because nucleation typically involves extremely rapid (<1 millisecond) events involving objects that are extremely small (on the order of a nanometer), it is difficult to probe such phenomena at a molecular level.

Keywords:   activities, critical nucleus size, epitaxial matching, growth, homogeneous nucleation, interfacial energy, molar volume, nucleation, screw dislocations

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