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Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708) – Master of the White Hawk - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708): Master of the White Hawk

J.S. Grewal


The unifying theme in the life of Guru Gobind Singh was confrontation with the Mughals, which culminated in a struggle for political power. This fact is brought into sharp focus when we consider the Guru’s life and legacy simultaneously in the context of the Mughal Empire, its feudatory states in the hills, and the Sikh movement. The creation of the Khalsa in 1699 as a political community with the aspiration to rule made conciliation or compromise with the Mughal state almost impossible. Their long struggle ended eventually in the declaration of Khalsa Raj in 1765. Using contemporary and near ... More

Keywords: Sikh identity, Khalsa, Sikh scripture, hill-states, Dasam Granth, rahitnama literature, Sikh movement Masands, Khalsa Raj, Mughal Empire, Aurangzeb, Zafarnama, Sikh Panth

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2020 Print ISBN-13: 9780199494941
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2020 DOI:10.1093/oso/9780199494941.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

J.S. Grewal, author
Life fellow, Punjabi University, Patiala